The Ancient


A Universal Library

Alexander the Great -- the Conquests as a source of knowledge

The Founding of the Library and the Mouseion

All the Books in the World

Aristotle's Books

The Hunt for Books

The Egyptian Section of the Alexandria Library

The Papyri: Evidence of Greek and Egyptian Scientific Interchange

"The Writings of All Men"

The Growth of the Library

The Pinakes -- a Bibliographical Survey of the Alexandria Library

The Alexandria Library -- " The Memory of Mankind"

Appendix 1 -- The Contents of the Alexandria Library

Appendix 2 -- The End of the Library


The Modern

BIBLIOTHECA ALEXANDRINA--The revival of the Ancient Library of Alexandria

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1. G. Toomer, "Eudoxus", OCD 3rd ed. (1996); O.Neugebaur, The Exact Sciences in Antiquity, 2nd ed. Dover Pub.,N.Y. (1969) 151.
2. The point has repeatedly been discussed, cf. M.El-Abbadi, Life and Fate of the Library of Alexandria, Paris (1992) 79 ff.; L. Canfora, La bibliotheque d'Alexandrie et l'Histoire des Textes, Cedopal, Universite de Liege (1992) 11 ff.
3. Abdellatif Al-Baghdady, Al-Ifada wa'l I'tibar (Voyage to Egypt) p42; Maqrizi, Topography, apud D. E. Garcia de Herreros, Quatre Voyageurs Espagnols a Alexandrie, p.27
4. On the so-called 'city versions' of Homer, see R. Pfeiffer, History of Classical Scholarship, Oxford (1968) 94, 110,139; P.M. Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria, Oxford (1972) I.328, II.483 n.163.
5. W.G. Waddell, Manetho, The Introduction (Loeb).
6. Christian Leblanc, 'Diodor, Le Tombeau d'Osymandyas et la Statuaire du Ramesseum', Melange Gamal-Eddin Mokhtar, ed. Par Paule Posener-Krieger, IFAO, 97, Le Caire (1985) 69-82; S.M. Burstein, 'Hecateus of Abdera's History of Egypt' Life in a Multi-Cultural Society, ed. By J.H. Johnson, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilizations, no. 51, Chicago, Illinois. (1992) 45-9.
7. Theophrastus, almost a contemporary of the Saite calendar, is known to have visited Egypt and used the same word 'gnomon', in the sense of water-clock: Athen.2.42 b; cf. W. Capelle, 'Theophrast in Aegypten', Wien. Stud. 69 (1956) 173-180
8. J. Cerny, The Origin of the Name of the Month Tybi, Annales du Services des antiques de l'Egypte, 43 (1943) 173-181
9. Luciano Canfora, Il Viaggio di Aristea, Bari, Laterza (1996); A. Pelletier, La Lettre d'Aristee a Philocrate, Source Chretiennes, 89 (1962); cf. V. Tchericover, Corpus Papyrorum Judaicarum, I. pp. 30 f.
10. This step was traditionally attributed to Ptolemy II, see Tzetzes, Proleg. p.31 Mb 8 ff. ; for the foundation plates of the Sarapium, A. Rowe, The Discovery of the famous Temple and Enclosure of Sarapis of Alexandria, Cairo (1946) 1-10.
11. Menander, Sycionius, ed. A. Blanchard et A. Botaille, recherches de papyrologie, 3 (1964) 161 L P. Sorb. 2272, col.XXI, p.13; also observe Diogenes Laertius who repeatedly states the total number of lines of an author, e.g. IV.5, Speusippus, 43,475 lines; IV.14 Xenocrates, 224,239 lines, V.27 Aristotle, 445,270; Theophrastos, 232,800 lines.
12. B. M. Pap. 2110 (II A.D.) ed, H. I. Bell in Aegyptus 2 (1921) 281 ff.; Edict. Of Diocl., col. VII, 29-41.
13. R. Pfeiffer, Hist. Class. Schol. 127-133.
14. Frag. No. 447, in R. Pfeiffer, The Pinakes Fragments.
15. P. Oxy. 1367; Athen. 408 E.

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