OF THE GREEK PEOPLE
T U R K E Y
THE ARMISTICE TO THE END OF 1920
the conclusion of the 1914-1918 World War I,
the conclusion of the Armistice, the Christian world of the East believed that
its sufferings were at an end; that the tyrant's hands and feet were at last
fettered for ever; that the murderous dagger and the horrid scimitar of the
criminal had been put into the scabbard; that Christian life, honour and
property had been secured; in a word that a breeze of true liberty would
caress every brow.
it was mistaken! It had forgotten for a moment that the mode of life and the
general character of a nation, formed and crystallized through several
centuries, cannot be changed so abruptly. The Turkish nation had again
remained the same as before the Armistice and it shall yet continue to be the
same for a long time. The proof of this assertion is based on the horrible
atrocities which the Turks, whether private citizens or government officials,
have committed from the time of the Armistice to this day, by plundering,
torturing, mutilating, burning alive and massacring women and children and
aged people and turning into waste cemeteries, communities of Christians,
which only yesterday were flourishing and prosperous. The
Turks committed these criminal acts respecting neither their signature on the
document of the Armistice, nor the presence of the Allied troops and the
universal outcry of the whole civilized world against them.
reader of this Black Book — the second published, constituting a
continuation of the book issued in April 1919, which related the sufferings
and persecutions endured by the Greek people of Turkey from the time of the
Balkan War to the day of the Armistice — will surely shudder with horror and
start with indignation the readers, who will see the same ferocity still
prevailing in the bloodthirsty instincts of the tyrants; be they ordinary
Turks or Kemalist leaders. Taking especially into consideration the fact that,
due to the interruption of communications with the interior of Asia Minor, the
Bishops and Communities under the Kemalist authorities could not inform the
Patriarchate of the sufferings of the Christians, the reader will doubtless
justify the anxiety of our National Central Authority, in its fears for the
worst, with respect to the fate of the Christians still living in Anatolia.
heartily hope that such fears may prove groundless. But even in such a case,
the crimes officially reported to the Patriarchate corroborate once more the
truth of the statement, that the Turkish people, dominated as it is by such
savage instincts and having a character well known to all, cannot by any means
open a road towards progress and can much less be a paradigm to others.
THE GREEK POPULATION
atrocities which will be described here and which have taken place in this
ecclesiastical district after
the signature of the Armistice, prove that no change whatever took
place in the governing system of the provinces and that the big pre-existing
chaos, local tyrants widened more and more, by continuing
their mischievous acts for the complete extermination of the last remnants of
the Orthodox Greek population, which has suffered a real martyrdom.
the first days after the Armistice, Turkish troops went into the village of
Foutoudjak and plundered
many houses, killing at the same time inside the church Papa Lazaros, senior
Priest of the village.
again, Ali Ghalib, the Kaymakam of Tcharshamba, who two years ago, when he was
Kaymakam of Pafra, had completely
annihilated that district by setting fire to it and had exiled to Kastamouni
all the male population from 14 to 90 years of age, went to the village
Kazantsoulou, at the head of a military detachment and gendarmes, and killed
there Messrs Theodore I. Poulatoglou, Eustache Karaghiozoghlou, Jean Savva
Karaghiozoghlou and Yovanaki Karaghiozophlou. The
gendarmes, on the pretext that all these persons were military deserter, have
cut of their heads and brought them before the Kaymakam, who, although he
could see that the heads were of old men and minor boys, instead of punishing
them, rewarded the crime by saying “Well done, my children, this is the way
you must fulfil your duties”. After this encouragement, the gendarmes have
attacked the women and, like satyrs, they have satisfied their criminal
instincts, raped many girls and violated more than 56 married women. The
answer which the Kaymakam gave to those protesting for these crimes was
simply: “Well done! This is what you, the guiaours, deserve”.
the village Kavak, a Turk, named Ekrem, who was placed during the War by the
Government at the head of 50 irregular troops (bashibozouks),
completely all the surrounding villages, massacred whomever he wished,
compelled all those who wanted to avoid military service, to pay each month
heavy taxes. This way he contributed to the increase of the number of
fugitives, and thanks to this scheme, he
became exceedingly rich. Further, in association with the Moudir and
with his acolytes Mehmed Pehlivan and Nedjib, he was stealing
publicly the beasts and other goods of the Greeks;
he terrorised that district by arresting and locking up Greek women in his
Haremlik, and after satisfying brutally his instincts, he would release them.
This tyrant had received unofficial orders to arm a band of his men and
continue his civilizing mission!
the district of Pafra, the Moslem Albanians established themselves in the by
then evacuated Christian villages. Expecting that they would be compelled some
day to re-abandon the villages, they left the fields uncultivated, demolished
the houses and sold the timber to the neighbouring Turkish villages. Those
Greeks, who returned, not only could not take back their stolen goods, tools
and beasts, but they did not even dare to go near their villages, because they
were threatened to be killed by the Moslem Albanians, who were armed to the
teeth. Thus, Jean Kavaklioghlou accompanied by his son Savva and his nephew
Manoli, who were going to visit their village Sourmeli, were
literally slaughtered by the Albanians. Anastas Savoglou, from the
village Kaitalaba, was killed
between the villages Peitourlou and Kiosseli. Haralambos Papayorgoglou was killed
between Knilalaba and Tsiriklar. Many others were killed
in a similar manner. These Albanians, being under the protection of the chief
brigand and Kaymakam of Pufra, the Albanian Hakki, and with a view of
terrorizing the place and of obliging the citizens to scatter themselves into
the mountains, were firing during the night at the windows of the houses.
same things happened in the district of Nevien. In the middle of December,
Panayoti Tontonoglou from Kupoukaya and 5 women, all of whom were returning to
their homes, were
killed by the Turks of the village Sarbin,
the same month, Avraam Peftouloun, Totoroglou and Panayoti Constantine Emanet,
who where returning from Vezir-Kioprou to their village Kapoukaya, were
killed by Hadji Karahamdji and Kel Tanadjioglou, both Turks of Sarbin.
the same month, Constantine Tsolak from Kouzala (Pafra),
was killed by
the Turks of the village Kirleycn near Vezir-kioprou. Two other Christians
coming from the interior were killed
in the same month by Turks on the banks of the river Alys near Kapoukaya.
other Greeks, Tryphon, from the village Kara-Hussein, Ketseli, from Kafza and
Yovan Kovavloglou from Kapoukaya, having bought some beasts in the village
killed by Turks in an ambush, when they were returning.
again Mr. Miltiadis Kaladjoglou, from the burned village Devrend, who was the
only support of 13 orphans, and who was working in the Turkish village
assassinated in the house of Molla Hussein, in the presence of several
the same month, near Samtoun, a certain Nazim Tchaoush, Custom’s official of
Tckekyoi, went to the village Tsinik and thrashed
Mr. Anesti Papouloglou, wounding him in his nose, ears and other places and
plundered his house. His poor wife was so much frightened that she died the
next day. The same man has also plundered
the house of Hadji Gavrili Gavriloglou, and just
for mere pleasure killed a woman from Sari-Klissp, who was going to her
village, as well as a man named Christo Kazandjoglou, from the village
the village Falsa a military detachment, under the orders of the Arab officer
Mr. Zaharias Deliyannides, from the village Sinan (Keras-sounde), the two
brothers George and Jean Varitimoglou, from Sinavli, village of Ordou and Mr.
George Andreoglou, from Guiavous-Bouki, another village of Ordou. The
officer had cut off the heads of all these men, on the pretext of being
deserters, and had sent them to the bloodthirsty Kaymakam of Tcharskamba. The
above mentioned officer is at the same time the hero of many other crimes and
January 14th , 1919 a military detachment went to Taflan-kyoi to
pursue deserters and killed
there Mr. Hercule Eleftheriou, a
10 years old boy named Hercule Pandeli, a
20 years old young lady named Eleni Yeorghiou, and another man,
Eleftherios Ermenides. Then, they
plundered many houses robbing as many beasts as they could, together
with all the corn-crops. They tore the holy Gospel and robbed all the
ornaments, vessels, vestments, frontals, etc.
the January 15th , 1919, Hadji Agha Bey, from the village Teke-kyoi
and President of the
Committee for Union and Progress, accompanied by his 3 sons and his 3
brothers and also by Kessif Pehlivan, Hassan Kokoz Ali, Kartali, Hassan
Pehlivan, Mouhazer Hakki, Ali Ibrahim and Kiritli Memet, all of whom were
armed, accompanied also by two local gendarmes, Rechid and Ali, and by many
others, went into the village of Tchinik, where they
opened fire, killed a boy, Vassilios Ioannou, 15
years of age, plundered
many houses, and then returned quietly back to their village.
the January 21st, 1919, Ahmed Tchaoush, who together with others
had the duty to look after the security of the place Djumbuz-Han, attempted
to kill the coachman, Antonios Dem. Mouratoglou, from the village
Kara-Day, while shouting at the same time "Up
to this day I have killed 50 infidels; I will kill you too. There is no one to
enquire about it”.
such things happen under the eyes of the representatives of the victorious
Powers, one can imagine what is taking place in the interior, where there is
no control or any kind of inspection, and the Raya (Ottoman
subject), is abandoned to become the victim of despotism and barbarous
instincts of the first irregular soldier or gendarme he meets.”
do not receive any more news from our representatives in the interior, because
they are tired of writing in vain and reporting persecutions and martyrdom. It
is only today that I have been able to find out that the brigands
have entered also in the cities, forcing and plundering the shops of all the
Greeks. Thus, in the city Erbaa, (
we were expecting upon the termination of the War and the signing of the
Armistice which followed, an improvement of this state of things, on the
contrary, the tyrant became bolder and more impudent.
After the political change and the downfall of the Unionistic Government, the
Committee of Union and Progress continues to have the control in its hands and
the power to impose itself omnipotent every where. This fact is quite natural
and easily explained from a psychological point of view, when we presume that
this Committee is the expression and incarnation of the Turkish soul itself.
The Turkish people in the face of the Committee have recognized the
incarnation of their desiderata, their dreams and their ideals. But on the
other hand the Committee too, being an offspring of this people, and
consequently in a state to know better than any body the popular psychology,
has drawn up a program entirely in conformity with its tendencies and
instincts, with a view of strengthening and extending itself in as greater an
area as possible. Talaat,
this highest representative of the Turkish soul, has publicly expressed
himself about the Greeks, saying that he will reduce them to beggars by
robbing their properties and distributing it to the Turks. And indeed, the
property of the expelled Greeks of
being the psychological dispositions of the Committee of Union and Progress,
one must not be surprised to hear me say that this Committee is still
dominating our place, and is intending to bring about new catastrophes,
resulting in the complete destruction of the remaining ruins, heaped up by the
fanaticism and barbarism of recent years. For the last two months this
Committee continues to arm the Turks of all the cities and villages from the
coast, to the interior of
same things take place in the interior of
the light of this new armed preparation and systematic organisation, which is
going on most methodically among the Moslem population, the Greek people are
in great terror and agony, not knowing what will happen to them. Many of those
who could manage, came from the interior to our
City, and others are getting ready to flee. All these unfortunate beings are
perfectly right. The big wounds of the Nation are still fresh. They have not
been yet cured and they cannot be. The murders, the robberies, the disgraces
and violations committed by the Turks have become the order of the day. On the
other hand, the injustices, crimes and corruptions of the governors of Baffra,
Hakki Bey and Tcharshamba Galib Ali and others, who committed the deportations
and usurpations of the property of the Greeks, not only remained unpunished by
the Turkish Authorities. Consequently, the perpetrators became even more
audacious and turned to be the chief-brigands of the place and the tyrants of
the Christians. Every piece of property of the Christians is found in the
hands of these monsters. The honour of the women becomes the prey of the first
aggressor and there is no safety of life, property or honour.
February 1st, 1919, soldiers have
killed Hadji Elia of Kerassound, Persefs K. Zaifoglou and Hriste
Tsigaroglou, all of them in the village Tsinik; and although they had declared
that they surrender, nevertheless they were fired at, and Ghristo, seriously
wounded, hid himself in a corner, where he died, and the other two were
arrested and taken somewhere out of the village, where
they were slaughtered. Then the soldiers cut off their heads and rejoicing,
brought them to Teke-kyoi and hung them for 8 whole hours in front of the shop
of the President of the
report from Bafra, dated February 4th, 1919, states that on
February 2nd, in the village Issaakli, a suburb of Bafra, while a
wedding was taking place in a house, a Turk named Sarimin Ismail, has fired
through the window at those inside the house and killed
a young man 25 years old, Lazar Prassaoglou, and a
girl, Despina Kalaoglou, from the village Kain-lalabci, wounding at the
same time a Demetrios Panaoglou, a Yovan Pandeli and a girl. Although the
perpetrator was arrested, he was released two days later, on the ground that
there was no proof. However, all those who were present, recognised him, and
so, in his place the wounded persons were imprisoned.
to another report from the representative of the Metropolitan at Gavza, dated
also February the 4th, the refugees who were returning to Bafra,
were killed by Turks
of the village Surbin, near the Kaza of Bafra, and the
corpses were speared and set up on prominent places.
16 year old boy,
Panayioti K. Anastasoghlou, and Mrs. Katina, wife of Kyriake N. Alessoglou,
both from Kapoo-Kaya, as well as Averkio Papa Paraskevaoglou, from the
Christian village Tolioalar, were
also assassinated. The witness of these assassinations was
bride, wife of a tailor from the village Kabou-hlou Esmc, kaza of Vezir
Kioprou, who was going to Amassia to visit her imprisoned for political
reasons husband, was carried away by the Turks of the village Essin Bey. She
was taken to the house of Pits Ahmed Oglou, where she was violated by the
Police Magistrate and his secretary, who happened to be found in the house.
After this base action and in order to have their crime concealed, all three
of them sent her to Zeintounlouk, one of the wildest Turks….
report from Kavza, dated
the two weddings mentioned above, one bride had to go to Knvza. Here however
nobody knew anything of the events which took place at Kiosroufi. Therefore
many people set off from there, with eight carriages and about 50 horses, to
go and receive the bride. Thus all of them, men and women, fell in the trap,
and a pandemonium followed. Every single person was imprisoned in the stables
etc. Cryings and horror fell throughout the village, because Memdouh
the murderer had ordered that the best-man, Basile Kiossoglon, and Cotso K.
Antonoglou should be at once shot.
February 21st six young men from the village Hallab-Kogliaz, this
side of Tsoroum, who had completed their military service and were returning
from Angora to their homes, were arrested by the Turks of the above village,
and three of them, Nicolas P. Simeon from Merzifoon, Jioannis Semer-djoglou
from Hadjikeuy, and Stavros from Kiosrouf, were
killed, while the other three seriously wounded.
February 22nd Memdotih Bey, Gendarmery Commander at Merzifoon,
renowned for his monstrosities against the Greeks of Vezir-Kioprou, who with
one shot had killed 18 Greek boys, by placing all of them in a row, the one
behind the other, came in the village Kiosroof, kaza of Kavza, and killed
Isaak, a sixty years old quiet peasant.
February 23rd Turks entered in the house of Haralambos Hristou, in
the village Terpez (Oinoi), and literally stripped it. The most notorious of
the bands, raging all these districts, is that of Terme Pits Ahmed, composed
of 150 murderers, who are plundering and killing every day the remnants of
already ruined villages.
February 26th, near Kessillou a Mehmed Pehlivan, ex guard of the
village, attacked Christo Photoglou and mortally wounded him. While the poor
victim was expiring, he said to Harilaos Avraam, from Tsikour-Yatak, who
happened to pass by, that the above mentioned Turk is his murderer. The
perpetrator now lives in Samsoun, quite undisturbed.
February 27th, the renowned Commander of Gerdarmery at Merzifoon,
attacked with gendarmes and Bashibozouks a wedding procession, which was going
from Hadjikeyj (kaza of Amassia), to the village, and a fighting of 20 minutes
took place, during which three Christians were wounded.
March 2nd, two Christians from Kirezli, of Baffra, who were
returning to their village, were killed
near the village Toum-Soiigluts.
March 4th, five Greeks from Phulsn, who were going with kaiks
back to their country, were arrested near Tcharshamba by pirates, who carried
away goods worth 4000 liras. The pirates have not touched at all the kaiks
transporting Turkish goods, checking carefully whether the goods were
belonging to Christians or to Moslems.
March 7th Osman Tchaoush, the Police Commander of Platano thrashed
mercilessly the priest Lazaros.
March 8th in the village Sounoussa Arpa Deressi, Kaza of Ladik, six
Greek soldiers, returning from their military service, were
massacred with axes by Turkish peasants.
March 9th the Laz-Turks who on January 10th had entered
in Tsalnl Armootkyoi, robbed everything from the house of Samsounlou Panayot, whose
ear they have cut, and arresting Anthimos Vassiliou, ordered him to get
ready for them 1000 liras, otherwise he would be killed.
March 10th seven cavalry gendarmes met near the village Dere
Tchiflikt (Frbaa), five Greeks going to their village Teke and firing against
them, they killed
one of them.
March 12th two young Greeks of Kurd-Dere of Oinof, who had been
exiled to the village Kirez-Tepe, were engaged as servants of the Aga (chief)
of the village Tayar, who then asked them to take charge of guarding, as it
were, the house of his son Hassan, against a probable attack by the Armenians.
Without suspecting anything the two poor Greeks went there and they were assassinated
March 14th Turks arrested
the priest George, who was returning from
March 16th at about
Fethi, son of the gendarmerie Commander at Oinoi, has forced the door of the
coffee-shop Sava-Mavi and entering in the shop, fired at him, wounding
him mortally. He died after a few days.
March 18th the priest Mihail, from the village Youha Yapou of
Amassia, who was going with his companion Vassilios Papa Kyriakou to
Merzifoon, was attacked near the village Alala by Ahmed Imamoglou, from
Kiork-kyoi, who robbed them and then shot Yassilios at his right breast. He
also fired at the priest, whom he wounded in his neck. The priest pretending
to be dead, fell and so saved his life. The
assassin went away, after ascertaining that both of his victims died.
March 20th in the village Ersandik (Vezir-Kioprou), a band of 23
bashibozouks and 10 soldiers, have asked a woman to give them bread. The woman
gave them the only loaf she had with her. The bashibozouks began cursing her,
which made her husband come out of his house and intervene. A little later,
however, came reinforcements with mitrailleuses and many other Moslems from
the neighbouring Turkish villages and attacked the whole village, killing
the priest George and 14 women and children.
March 21st, the infamous brigand Kasik Mehmed, from the village
Rash Alan near Kavak, had gone with his acolytes to the village Souloudjak
Pitsindjik, killed Anastassios Kyriakoglou, Demetrios Yeorgiou, loannis
Constantinou, Costi Yeorgiou and Panika Vassiliou, and robbed all their mony
and clothes. Besides, he also committed several other crimes, and when he was
leaving, he gave such
a blow on the skull of Sofia Anesti Panteloglou, that the next day she died.
The Metropolitan of Amassia officially protested this murder, but the
Moutessarrif gave no notice to this denunciation and let the perpetrator go
free, without asking anything concerning this crime.
March 22nd, in the village Mouxid (Kavza), Turks killed
John Eleftheriou and Philippe Sava, both from Ttredjik.
March 23rd, George Haralambassoglou from Ordou, who was working in
the Turkish village Tsivril, has sent his employee, Paul Ioannou Tsamadjoglou
to Samsoun for work. The latter was arrested outside the village and killed
by the Turks, sent there for the purpose.
March 25th, the gendarmes of Tekekyoi arrested in Andrialos two
peasants from Tsawalan, on the ground of being deserters. But instead of
taking them to the Konak, they slaughtered
them like sheep, and rejoicing, carried their heads to Tekekyoi.
March 26th several women came from the village Karadjakyoi of
Siuopo with wounded
heads and limbs, describing in very black colours the tortures they suffered
by the gendarmes, in addition to their privation and other ill treatment,
after their return from exile. The commonest phases which the
Government functionaries are using against the unfortunate Ottoman Greeks, are
“You, Ghiaours, (infidels), you still dare to talk, and you are still
living; in one evening we shall sweep you away”.
March 27th Turks entered at night in the village Tarkandag, arrested
two Christians and killed them. After these crimes were committed, Kara
Dimit, chief of a band, entered in the Turkish villages Ahourlou, Smonssik and
Kdlik, the populations of which were armed by the Government and disarmed,
them without killing a single person.
March 28th Turks killed
in his mill a Greek, George the mill-keeper, from the village Poulaman
(Phatsa), with a view to take over his mill with all the surrounding fields,
which they were cultivating, as their own, during the exile of the true owner.
March 29th, three Christians from the village Tsinglur were
arrested by Turks on their way to Samsoun. The Turks literally
cut them into pieces. The Christians of the village Tangarlou found and
brought the corpses to their village. They then informed the widows and the
orphans, who weeping and lamenting came to take the corpses and bury them in
their village. The persons so cruelly
murdered, were Nicolas Samloglou, Archangele Samloglou and 14
years old boy Savva Tachtadji.
March 31st, between the Turkish villages Carli and Emirli, four
Greeks from the villages Karakostalar were
massacred by Turks; they were called Constantine Karacasoglou, Cost.
Dimitriou, Paul Papazoglou, and Tarahtchi, son-in-law of Hadji Lazaros.
April 2nd, in the Turkish village Tsolah Kaza of Ladik (Amassia),
murderers have killed
the son of Kosma, Ktradjom a
young man 20 years old, and also the son Pavlos, a young
man 18 years old. The first was shot and the second was literally
April 7th, near the Turkish village Alionrlou Surkish bands have
arrested and killed
in the road G. Philiposoglou, and Aposlolos Mouhtaris, two Greeks from the
village Doumuz-Agli. At the head of the band was the infamous Laz Mehmed, who
had robbed about 30 women and children passing from that place, and carried
away clothes, monies and everything else the unfortunate creatures had with
them. On the same day, in the village Kadedi, Hadji Mehmed Tchaoushoglou with
his acolytes and assisted by the gendarmes of Tekektyoi, arrested at night the
following persons who were working there: Christo Papazoglou, a
boy 13 years old, Kyriako Yeo-ika, 45 years old, Theokhari Moumdji,
Kosti Termeli 25 years
old, and three other tinmen. All of them were from the village Tsinik.
From them one, named Thokhari and a further tinman, succeeded to escape, but all
others were massacred.
April 8th, about 50 Turks under the leadership of Kurdoglou Mehmed
Redjeb, surrounded at 3 o'clock in the morning the little village Kertchembe,
comprising 10 houses and situated only half an hour's away from Samsoun. At
first they blockaded the house of a 17 year old young man, J. Vassiliou, who
for three whole hours was courageously resisting the band, without
surrendering his home to the brigands. In the meantime, a Greek, Christo
Triantafillides, came out of his house, to assist his countryman, who was in
danger, but he was
cruelly killed; his wife, Parthena, and a Lazaros Vassiliou, were mortally
April 13th, the teacher Haralambos Yeorghiadis, in the company of
George Ilia Tsinoglou and the 17
years old son of Hadji Panayoti, as well as Anastase Tombouli, left the
village Kiztl-Giul lo come to Samsoun. All of them were arrested near
Indje-Sou by Turks and massacred.
April 14th, the corpses of two Greeks, who were strangled
on the road of
the same day, about 200 bashibozouks assisted by gendarmes, blockaded the
village Tosoaz of Amassia, killed
four peasants and slaughtered
a good many children, who had escaped to the mountains.
April 27th, near Katnmoul, about 50 soldiers and bashibouzouks,
were arresting all those passing from the central main road. Among those
arrested, was Anastasios Vassiloglou from the village Omer-Guioylou, who
having served as soldier for seven whole years, had returned from his military
service. This man was killed
by the above mentioned bashibozouks. On the same day, in a place called
Tsorljouk-Bogan, a Greek, Kyriakos, from Enguiz-Tepc (PMra), was put
April 28th, at Tchikour-Alan (Krwzu), Turks have killed Paulos Koja
Biyikoglou; they have
cut off his head, put it on a pole and used it as a target for shooting
April 30th , at Pekerli (Al-tcham), a
widow was murdered, leaving four minor orphans. On the same day the
Greek J. Anatasiou from the village Ormanos, while returning from Bafra to his
village, was attacked by a band of 15 brigands and put
May 1st, about 200 armed Turks firing against all the Greek
villages in the vicinity of Sepija, have
hilled Ilia Etikwuzuylott, a tobacco merchant from Inje Keris. On the
same day at Erbna a Greek Chief named Yakovos, who after the Armistice was
handed over to the Authorities and later on he was left free, while going to
the house of Mr. X. Kojamanidou, was shot
dead at midday in the centre of the city. Many Turks participated in
this crime, but those who have shot him were Kurkji Euzeyir, kurd
Hassan and Poughamali Ali Shan.
May 2nd, the Chief of the Gendarmerie Detachment, Corporal Sari
Mehmed from Asarjim, invited the Greek N. Hadji Sava from Karamough, to go and
see him. Hadji Sava took with him the teacher Lazaros, from Teke-kyoi, and
went to see the corporal. When they arrived there they saw that the corporal
had with him a few armed well known brigands, who a few minutes later left and
hid themselves in a spot, about 15 minutes away from the station. When the two
Greeks were returning to their homes, these brigands fired at them; Hadji-Sava
succeeded to escape, but the poor
teacher was killed.
May 5th, a band of brigands arrested near Kavadjik 3 Greeks,
kidnapped them and their horses, took them to an unknown destination and then exterminated
them. On the same day a band of 25 Lazes and others, entered the
Turkish village Kousktshoulat (Baffra), arrested the Greeks Eleftherios
Parasoghlou, from Tekcmljik, Isaak Daniiloglou, and Kallinikos Yacow, who were
working in the village, and killed
them. Further on the same also day, a band of Lazes and Turko-Albanians
attacked the village Enguis-Tepe (Baffra). Women and children scattered about
and the brigands having plundered all houses, killed
Kyrillos Demirdji, Alexandre Kesseli, Costi Papaioannou, Styliano Mihailoglou
and the carpenter Haralambos from Ineboli, all of whom have been unable to
May 6th near Kavadjik (Samsoun), another band kidnapped and put
to death G. Theodorou, J. Savva, and Christo Panayotin, all natives of
the 8th of the same month, another band attacked the village Petes
Bafra, plundering the house of Apostolos Sagiroglou, who was kidnapped to the
mountains and disappeared
ever since. The robbed goods were found in the houses of Oflou Zade
Risa, Tahir Aga Zade, Hadji Bey Kerzeli Oglou
Redjeb all, of whom were arrested, but released a little later.
the 9th of May, several peasants of Sira-Kendir (Ladik), and of
other villages, while going to the bazaar of Ladik between the Turkish village
Hamid Kyoi and Kiodec Kyioi, have fallen into a snare of a band composed of 12
brigands. One of the travellers, Panika Vomankozoglou, was
put to death. On the same day another band arrested and carried away to
the mountains Stylianos Bodosoglou, from the village Lenyieiti (Baffra). After
a few days his body was found near the village Sounnrli, next to the corpse of
another unknown Greek; the
heads of both of them were cut off and placed under their own armpits.
the 13th of May, the Greek chief Pits Vassili, in the company of
his wife, was going from Kaxza, where he used to live, to his native village.
Although after the Armistice he had surrendered to the Authorities and was
living a private life and he was under supervision. He fell into the ambush of
a Turkish band near the village Sivri Klisse. Somehow he saved his life, but his
wife was killed. On returning to Havza he reported the crime, but he
was arrested and put into jail.
same Metropolitan wrote on May 31st. —“The evil is continuing during the
month of May as well, robberies, kidnappings, murders and terrorism are now
quite ordinary phenomena and the Lazes under the protection of the Government
are landing around Samsoun and preparing to massacre the Christians. The place
is full of criminals. The Turks of the cities are organising themselves and
directing bands with the knowledge of the Government. These bandits go freely
about the cities and at night go up to the mountains. They are plundering and
destroying and return undisturbed to receive new instructions and perpetrate
the beginning of August 1919 regular troops with bashibozouks attacked the
village Kouloudjata, which was completely
and literally plundered. A similar attack took place on the 21st
of August against the village Teknedjik.
August 4th, the Greek Pavlos Panayotoglou from Kizyl Yol, while
returning from Samsoun to his village, was robbed
and killed at Indie-Sou, by the band of Mehmed Effendi. Although the
Authorities have arrested one of the murderers, he was afterwards released,
through the intervention of the chief of the band in question.
September 18th, the son of the shepherd Bessim Tchaouch, from the
village Alaichak, has killed
at Zeintounglou another
Greek shepherd, grandson of Yovani Hadji Badjanaghi.
September 23rd, several peasants from the village Alan and Sernitch
going to Ladik, where robbed.
Three of them accompanied by a girl were carried away, and were later found
dead, lying in a ditch, with tied hands and feet. The poor girl was mortally
wounded under the ears. The gendarmerie did nothing for the arrest and
punishment of the criminals.
Obtober the 5th, a big sailing vessel carrying tobacco from
Alatcham with several passengers on board, was attacked by Lazes, who robbed
the ship; the damages were more than 6000 liras. About the same date a Greek,
Savvas Pavlou, from the village Tougssnuskyoi in company of his servant, was
coming back home from his mill; on the way they were attacked
and killed. Also another Greek, Porlika Papazoglou, and his son
Lazaros, were killed
on the same day.
April 7th, the following persons were
killed by Turks of the village Inbat, ten minutes away from the city
Erbaa, where they had gone shopping: Dimitrios Grigoriou Abbazoglou, and
Stefanos Yeorghiou Abazoglou, natives of the village Fadura, and Kyriakos
Pandelioglou, Savas S. Sariparoglou, and Savas Sekir Lambi, natives of the
village Hadji Bey.
May 17th, Alexander Mamatidis, living at TeM-Kyoi, disappeared; it
was found out later, that he had fallen into a snare of Lazes, and was
May 28th, Constantine Yovanoglou, Eleftherios Dimitroglou, Nicolas
Chrissoglou, Efraim Phot.
Kiossekehaya and Paraskeva Demirdjsglou, all natives of Knrabounar (Baffra),
while returning from Majifoon, sustained and attack near the Turkish village
Tshal (Kaza of Kioprou). The
first three were killed, and the other two wounded.
June 28th, one of the leaders of Tsbroum named Astos Ouraktsoglou
in the prison of Alalscham.
July 19th, bashibozouks killed
two Greeks of the village Yatjli Pussan, named Yorika Yerz. Xenitoglou
and loannis Amanetoglou. On the 31st seven Lages carried
away and killed near Eski Idissc, Panayoti Hadji Yeorghiou, native of
the village Christi (Bafra), and his son-in-law, Kyriako Kara Demirdtoglou.
August 1st, soldiers killed at Yagla Keris, the Greek Aleco
Minasoglou, a native of the village Kapa Djeviz. On the 19th of the
same month, the Greek Antonios Karakostali, native of the village
Kara-Koushitshoular (Ladik), while returning to his village was killed
near the Turkish village Kol-Alan, by Ouzoun Ali Oglou Ahmed and his acolytes.
On the 23rd, armed Turks of the Turkish village Mamalzi, attacked the quarter
of Adji-sou (Kodja Dagh), killed
four, Layaros Kemendjepji, Sofia, wife of Iordanis Savoglou, Stavroula,
wife of Nikolaos Hizardji, Eleni, wife of Pavlos Dimitroglou, and wounded
Yanko Lazarou. And again in the quarter Tsikour Yatak, they
killed Photios and Panayoti Aridjoglou, Yorika Parassi, the son of
Yanko Photoglou, and wounded Evyenia Theodorou.
September 1st, Stavro Savoglou, Panayoti Photoglou, Simeon and
Anastas Nizanoglou, all natives of Kourou, were coming to Bafra. On the way
they were arrested by armed Turks, and
the first two were wounded mortally by dum-dum bullets, while the other two
were killed on the spot. On the 23rd of the same month,
Turkish brigands entered the
October 5th, at Tsakalli, on the road to Kavak, Turks knocked at
the door of the house of Ioannis Tomazoglou. When the latter opened to see who
had come, he was shot
Kemalists, numbering 4.000, are pursuing the Circassien Hassan Tchaouch, and
since last August begun to
ruin and burn to ashes the Greek villages of the district, so that the
above mentioned Hassan may not be welcomed and there. Sixteen houses of the
villages Sernitcch, four houses of the village Kadir-Alan, (Kaza of Erbao),
and again two houses in the village Sahardja and two houses at Karamouch,
(Kaza of Ladik), and
the churches were completely
plundered and everything sacred were trampled. As Hassan Tchouch found
refuge in the district of the Kaza Vehir Kioprou, the Kemalists proceeded to
ruining of the following Greek villages: Ersandouk, Saradjik, Kaplan, Kodja,
Daout Yourd, Poutsouk and Tchift. In the village Kaplan 12
Greeks were killed, amongst whom, were the mouchtar of the village,
Panayoti Hadji Mihail, Yanni Hodja and his brothers Theodoros, Haralambos and
crimes, plunderings and violations were chiefly committed by bashibozouks of
the districts of Kavza and Kioprou. They were encouraged in their deeds by the
presence of regular troops and so they thought of using the occasion and cause
a complete catastrophe wherever they could.
the very first days of the Armistice, the Turkish Government officials, as
well as all other private Turks, have adopted a menacing attitude against the
Christians. Rumours about imminent massacres were going about every day, and
the terrorised Christians did not dare to come out of their houses and attend
to their ordinary agricultural work. This anxiety was continuously increasing
in consequence of the fact that the local Authorities had begun to publicly
furnish arms to the Turks.
the month of September of 1919, the Greek John Panayot Reis, was cut
to pieces between Samsoun and Oinoi. In the middle of the same month,
Aristidis Simitos, a native of Oinoi, was returning from Ratoum on board his
own motor-boat and he moored in the
June 25th, about 3000 antikemalists have made an assault against
the Kemalists at Ziles and by putting fire to the city, have burned down to
ashes all of it, including six houses belonging to Greeks.
the middle of September Kemalists burned and ruined the Greek villages of the
Kaza of Erbna.
Seven houses in the village Entik-Pounar, six houses in the village
Heriz-Dagh, four in the village Guiok-Tssukour, three houses in each of the
villages Guiol-Ognou, Fadara, Hadji Bey and Kil-Yoldouren, and two houses in
each of the villages Djebrail and Kelemiz, were all
burned down. Besides many
human losses are to be reckoned.
a report of the Greek community of Falsa dated October 19th,
oppressions, the tyrannies and persecutions against the Greek element from the
Nationalists are always continued systematically and premeditatedly....
We are under full anarchy …. About a month ago Greek families coming
here from the interior, were robbed
on the way. Their losses amount to more than 10,000 liras. Besides, two
Greeks were murdered. A few days ago in the centre of the City shops
and houses were plundered. The losses amount to 3,000 liras. Three days
ago Turks have stolen the motor-boat of a Greek, which was lying in the
Policarpos, Metropolitan of Neocesarea, while returning back to his diocese in
the middle of October, he was compelled to go back to
plunderings and murders against Christians became very frequent from the very
first day of the Armistice in the Vilayet of Trebizonde, to such an extent,
that the peasants abandoning everything were compelled to find refuge to
Trebizonde to save their honour and their lives. There was a complete lack of
the evening of
the night of July the 5th Turkish brigands slaughtered
the Greek Aristidis Frangoulidis in his own chop, situated in the
quarter Pelras of the village Tsikoli, at Sourmena. On the night of the 19th
the same month, a band of ten Turkish brigands, entered the house of
Apostolos Foundoukoglou, situated at Kelonissa, of Sourmena, forcing the gate,
and after thrashing
him pitilessly, they robbed all his money, furniture, etc.
July the 22nd, three Greeks, Apostolos Nicolaidis, a grocer from
the village Assou, Dimitrios Frangoulidis, a grocer from the village Tsikoli,
and Spiridon Gourzoulidis, a blacksmith from Tsikoli, all of them working in
the small bazaar of Assou, after closing their shops in the evening were
returning to their houses at Tsikoli, about twenty minutes away from the
bazaars. On entering
to their village, four armed Turks waiting in ambush, fired at them, and
killed Apostolos Nicolaidis, wounding the other two. Of these, Spiridon
Gourzoulidis also would have been shot dead, if he had not fallen down and
pretended to be dead. As for Dimitrios Frangoulidis, he was wounded in his
belly and if he had not creped to avoid the bullets fired against him, he also
would doubtless been killed. The murderers, appeared to be only four, but in
reality they had other armed acolytes as well. After the attack have all left
August 2nd, the Greek, John Har.
Moumoulidis, from Tsikoli, while going to his shop, at Assou-han, and only
twenty minutes away from
the village, was repeatedly
fired at, by several unknown persons, lying in ambush on the road, and
seriously wounded on his shoulder.
continuous murders of the Christians were terrorising the whole Community of
Sourmena and particularly the inhabitants of the village Tsikoli, population
of Sourmena dit not know what to do for the safety of their lives. Robberies
and even occasionally violations of women were openly committed every day on
the main road of Trebizond-Argyroupolis, four hours away from Trebizonde.
Metropolitan of Trebizonde wrote on August 11th: “The situation
becomes every day worse and worse, partial security little by little
disappears, and the hatred against the Greek element is continuously
increasing. According to our information, whole bands of armed local Turks are
continuously coming up from Sourmena. The
day before yesterday two Greek young men were most tragically
killed at Kromni. The situation at Galliani and generally in Matsouka,
is very troubled and precarious, becoming every day worse and more
problematic. All the Turks are ready to rise up for internal revolutions. One
half of the Moslem population at Matsouka has already been armed and the other
half, coming in groups, receives arms and ammunition in the city of Trebizond,
both from other Moslems and from the Government Authorities. Four days
ago an armed band of well known Turks entered at night in the village Tsimcrcu
Moudjeni of Toroul and literally plundered it. The situation at Sourmena gets
likewise worse and worse. On the 9th of September, the day on which
the bazaar of Houmiourkian takes place, while the Greek Petro Kazandjidis was
going to that market, was attacked in the middle of the street by a band of
brigands, who were waiting in ambush. The band arrested him and kidnapped him
to an unknown destination and at the same time fired ten bullets in order to
frighten the crowd of the people and keep them far. The plan was premeditated.
We have at once informed the Captain of the Gendarmerie, who only two whole
hours after the kidnapping, has ordered enquiries to be made. The fate of
Kazandjides, who perhaps was killed, remains unknown. It is rumoured that many
other Christians will be ill treated. Three days ago, a band of brigands
plundered at night five Christian shops in Assou-han, although there is a
Gendarmerie station and there, as well as night-watchmen... On the first days
of the same month, the infamous murderer Souleyman Kalfa, entered in the
village Sourmanoi (Galliani), with 15 of his acolytes and other gendarmes, and
pitilessly thrashed a Greek named Ilia.”
of the village Yemoura, Kaza of Tre-bizond.
On the night of the 4th—5th of September, a band of
brigands approached the house of Sotirios Salonikides in the village Assou.
Sotirios' wife opened the window to see what happens outside. At that moment
one of the brigands caught her hand; she began to cry out and her husband ran
to her. Then another brigand fired at him and wounded him so seriously, that
he died two hours later,
the 9th of the same month, two armed Turks came to the house of
Nico Metaxa in the evening and kidnapped
his son John, leaving at the same time a letter by which they were demanding a
ransom of 2000 liras, to be paid within three days...
(Caza of Arghiroupolis). About the same month, the
Greek Vasilios Tazidis, watchman of the village Upper-Tarsus arm, was shot
while he was inside the village. In the villages of Herriana, in which
Christians had fled from the interior for refuge, the provisions and beasts of
those poor men, which were given to them by the American Relief Committee,
were taken away. It was made known that the Government took them, in order to
secure the collection of arreared debts of the Christians to the Authorities.
At daybreak of September 13th a motor boat in the
On the evening of Friday October the 9th Greek John Leoussidis, was
wounded with a pistol in the elbow of his right hand, in his right leg while
he was in his house by Temel Ouzoun Mehmedoglou,
On October 11th two men and three women were going from Trebizonde
to their village Tsimera. As they were passing over the mountain Altas, there
were repeatedly fired
at by two brigands, who compelled them to stop. After
robbing them, the brigands killed Lazaros Moshopoulos and wounded one
woman called Mari Gueivenidis and the other man called George Moshopoulos
of the village Acrid, Kaza of Plalana.
On October 19th some
Turks attacked the Greek Theodoras Kandjidis, a musician and wounded him with
a pistol. On the 26th, the poor man died.
On the evening of October 30th, Ismail Kiveloglou Yehiya, who a
year ago had killed
the Greek, John Adamidis, from Rizound, went to the house of Stavrianos
Makridis and asked to see him personally. The son-in-law of Makridis with two
other Greeks, had been wildly
assassinated four months before. Ismail Yehiya had previously visited
Makrides and by threatening to kill him, had
succeeded in obtaining some money. This time Makridis was in his garden and
only his wife and his daughter were in the house. The girl, having suspected
the violent intentions of the murderer, informed her father, as he was coming
back from the garden, to get away. The mother of girl asked the murderer the
reason he wanted to see her husband. In reply the
brigand attacked her and hit her on her head with his bayonet. The poor woman
fell shrieking in pain and at that moment the murderer shot her dead.
The mother-in-law of the killed woman heard the cries from the next house and
ran to see what transpired. As
she saw what happened to cry out, three
bullets were fired at her, and she fell dead
(of the village Yemoura, Kaza of
a report written by the Metropolitan of Trebizond, dated April 7th,
1920, it was stated among other things that: “The state of the Greeks here
and in the provinces is most critical, because the only Authority ruling here
is, the Committee of Union and Progress. This alone is, we think, sufficient
to give an idea of the situation…”
state of the villages of this diocese was very anomalous ever since the first
days after the Armistice. Nowhere was it safe with respect to life and
property. Bands of armed Turks appeared and the peasants did not venture to
move from one village to another, fearing they may fall into these hands.
Daily the country-police ill treated and even tortured Christians, stealing
from them whatever it desired, whilst the governmental machinery was in a
state of disorganization and in dissolution.
the first days of January, 1919, the Turks living around the “Kremasti”
nunnery (run by the Monastery of Vazelon) broke into the establishment,
removed whatever they could from it, even the doors and windows and then destroyed
it. At this same time, a strong Turkish band, including natives of the
villages Tsicanoe and Yaghmoordere as well as of other areas, attacked a
company of Santaeans numbering about 100 men and women in all, as they were
to the above was the finding of the corpses of Gabriel Passalidis and of
another man, both Santaeans, who had been killed
by robbers, natives of the Turkish villages of Ashia and of Kolosia, laying
on the road joining them.
the district of Galiaene as well as all over the diocese, numerous assaults
and acts of violence and murder were made by robbers and bands. These bands
violated also the holy Monastery of Vazelon. Armed soldiers assailed the
Metropolitan Bishop of Rodopolis on his way to the said monastery and robbed
him of all his money. On another occasion his Episcopal residence in the
the and of the same mouth, the villages Mantanton, Kostorton and Hava Dzindzin
(of the neighbourhood of Spelia) were surrounded by Turks of the villages of
in same neighbourhood. John Pargorides and Parthena Tolphidou were killed,
Christodoulos Terpsides was wounded and the peasants underwent an exhaustive
with the above, murderous assaults and robberies were committed in all the
remaining districts of the diocese and particularly in the villages of Scalita
and Sachnoe. All
of the Galliana district were destroyed,
after been plundered and oppressed with particular persistence. The
the 8th of July 1919, a Turk, named Hussein, was murdered at
Kirli-Klisse near the Djevizlik-Hamsi-Kieui road. The murderers were Turkish
robbers, but the Turks attributed the crime to the inhabitants of the
Christian village Hortocopi and with this pretext they resorted to all kinds
of acts of violence theft and adultery. The Bishop of Rodopolis wrote about
these events on July 9th: “On the day following the murder, three
hours before sunrise, country-guards came to Hortocopi from Djevizlik and on
an order from its Governor, asked for three of its notables. When they took
one of them and were proceeding to the house of the next notable K.
Evghenides, suddenly came reports of gun burst from the center of the village.
The moment of the massacre of the villagers had come and in great terror they
took their wives and children to a neighbouring forest, where they hid
themselves. Fifteen minutes had hardly elapsed, when about 100 Turkish Tsets
(irregulars) coming from afar and from neighbouring Turkish villages, entered
the Christian village, pillaged
the houses and beat mercilessly those of the inhabitants who had stayed
behind, nine of whom after been tortured in several ways, were conducted away
to Djevizlik prisons, where they were beaten for three days in succession.
Such wild desire for vengeance possessed the Tsets
when they broke into the village, that they cruelly beat and wounded Palassa
Papagherides, George Papagherides, Constantine Havianitis, Kyriaki
Carayannidou, Aristocles Hadji Petrou, Apostolos Hadjidakis, Sophia
Apostolides, Elizabeth Hadji-Panaghi, Anastasios Lamprianides, Anasta
Carteridou, Christopher Caraghiozides, Anastasios Michaelides, Apostolos
Christophorides, Kyriaki Caffedzoglou, Anasta Vassiliadou and Paressa
ladies and virgins were dishonoured. Among them were Kyriaki
Papagheridou, Calliopi Apostolidou and Kyriaki Carayannidou. The aforesaid
murder gave the Turks inhabiting of my diocese, a chance to show very openly
their bad dispositions towards the unarmed and peace-loving Christians of my
villages. The heads of
my communities saw that bands were being formed and all the Turks were being
armed, preparing themselves for new attacks on my villages. Thus they
found it necessary to inform the British and French commissions at
penal law-court of Djevizlik condemned Kyriakos Amanatides, (of Sachnoe), John
Calaidjoghlou (of Daniacha) and Panayotis Marmanides (of Hamouri) as
perpetrators of the murder mentioned above. But on the 27th, of
August 1919, the three men were acquitted by the superior law-court of
Turk was murdered by unknown persons and at the beginning of June 1920. A
number of soldiers were sent to Santa to arrest the so called Santaean
murderers. The soldiers stayed there for more than 2 1)2 months arresting,
imprisoning and beating
Christians to death. Only toward the middle of August were the local
authorities convinced of the innocence of the quiet loving Santaeans and the
soldiery were removed.
acts of violence and the murderous assaults continued with the same vigour all
over this diocese. The Turks' insolence and fanaticism grew more threatening,
chiefly in the open country. The Government was incapable of imposing the law,
with its instruments distinguishing themselves in the persecutions of
supporters of the
March 1918, governmental officials and police-officers together with many
Turkish citizens, natives of Ak Dagh maden, Boghazlian, of Yozgat (Vilayet or
Angora) and of Yeni Hani (Villayet of Sivas), accused of having participated
in the Armenian massacres and the pillaging of the property of Christians,
formed a gang and attacked the Christians of the above districts, plundering
and sacking their property completely.
April 1919, John Spyrou and George Dimitriou of Boghoulan village (Keskin
section), were accompanying, together with others, five newly married couples,
going to a neighbouring village. Armed
Kurds fell on them on the way, bound up the men's eyes and led the brides
elsewhere to violate their honour.
the middle of the same month, Abraham Bodossoglou of the
gang of robbers headed by Topouz Oghlou Ahmed of Ordoti molested the
Christians between Boulandjaki and Abdal.
May, 1920, the Kerassurde-Karahissar highway communication was stopped. Bands,
armed in the vicinity of Tripolis, terrorized the Christians of Kerassunde,
Boulandzaki and of the country round.
October 1920, armed Turks took prisoner some women and children and the
following men: Kyriakos Psomiades, Savas and Elias Pime-nides, George
Havianides, Panayotis Cotsides, and Elias Pimenides, all of the
October 27th, the peasants Pandelis Dzemahides,
April 1920, assaults, acts of dishonour, of violence and of theft, took place
in the communities of Poulantzaki, Kguskaya and Yaghlidere.
May 1920, the mayor of Kerassunde, Osrnan Agha, a savage persecutor of
Christians, making the tour of the Christian villages armed, committed all
kinds of acts of cruelty and massacred
15 Christian peasants of Goreli and Courouk in a most atrocious manner.
July 5th, 1920, robbers led by Kior-Salih of Vesserna entered the
villages of Upper Kermont, Castrineta and Soutou and after
beating the peasants and robbing their property departed, conducting away five
men whom they massacred.
surroundings of Kerassunde were plundered and oppressed by Osman Agha. In July
1920, the members of the National Defence who were at Boulandjaki, one night
summoned before them Jordan J. Pastourmadji and slew him, on the pretext that
it was not in the interest of their district to have educated youths among the
Turks. Later on they arrested 25 other young men who it was said they have
sent to labour in the defence projects around Kerassunde. On April 20, from
the same also community, youths were arrested for the same purpose and
Panayotis Mihailidis and his wife were
district of Epesiou was tried quite hard. A report of May 1919, mentioned that
the Christians expelled by the Turks, upon returning from exile, were
killed. This happened in the villages of Troupsi, Paltsena, Epola and
Kiamissi, where the families of Eleftherios Toroman, George Tekes and Michael
Apostolou were slaughtered
by Tsataloglou Mehmed, Tapanoglou Halil and Sai'd as soon as they reached
June 29th, 1919, John Aracadjoglou, Elias Berberoglous Lazarus
Tongharoglou, Savas Keshishoglou and John Tongharoglou went to get food
supplies from Koliasar; eight hours' distance from their village. They
were savagely slaughtered with axes near the Kurdish village Zarghona.
This monstrous crime was discovered ten days later and caused a panic among
the Christian inhabitants of Kovadzouk, the native village of the victims.
They prepared to emigrate to some other place.
the beginning of November, 1919 two young ladies, Sophia Christou Demirdji and
Catherine Sava Demirdji, both of Karadja village, (Karahissardistrict), were
accompanied by Christians from Kerassunde to Kara-Hissar. Three policemen
posted on the highway, near Ayou Tepe (because of the systematic thefts and
robberies committed in the district) detained
the girls by force, after beating fiercely the men accompanying them, and them
violated their honour, leading them away to an unknown direction.
above incident justly grieved the Christians of Kara Hissar, who for five
entire years had seen many similar victims seized from the refuge of their
Christian homes. They were all the more grieved because in this case
government organs of Kerassunde were incriminated, to whom the protection of
the life, the honour and the property of the travellers had been entrusted.
must be noted that during this time the Kerassunde-Kara-Hissar highway became
a robbers' nest, whose presence not only interrupted communication for several
days at a time, but also rendered impossible every commercial enterprise. The
policemen guarding this highway had been recruited from that class of people,
who had not spared their services in the application
of the program for the destruction of the Christian element. Hence they
were the most significant and the fiercest initiators in the robberies
committed on this highway. The
honour and the property of the Christians continued to be the target of the
incorrigible Turkish element in the provinces.
the first days of May 1920, a real reign of terror of the mayor of Kerassunde
Osman Agha Feridinoglou reigned over this diocese. When he arrived at
Kara-Hissar, he did not respect even the post and the garb of the patriarchal
representative there, Bishop Ghervasios of
the 12th of July to this day, Halil Topanoglou and his accomplice
Serif Ali, as well as the instruments of the persecutor of the Christians
Osman Agha, have
killed in the
has not been possible for the Patriarchate to be informed on events in this
diocese, on account of the lack of regular communications with it. But it is
known with certainty that since the conclusion of the Armistice the terror has
incessantly been reigning over it. Osman Agha Feridinoglou, the Satrap of
Kerassunde had full freedom and absolute right to do whatever his savage soul
dictated to him, always having Hakki Bey Lardjin Zade as his assistant and
adviser. What the Christians of this community have suffered under him is
indescribable. His crimes could make up an entire volume. We limit ourselves
to the following for the present.
Even the Turks could not conduct their bisiness, unless they promised to give
him the lion's share of their profits. Otherwise they were prevented from
loading their goods for sale. He tore down a whole row of buildings, newly
built and for their greater part belonging to Greeks, on the ground that he
wanted to widen the street, but in reality he wanted to raise the value
property he had bought near by. He was the cause of many losses to Greek
alcohol manufacturers, for he confiscated and poured into the sea thousands of
okes alcohol. He drove out numerous Greeks from shops they rented and replaced
them with Turks. He obliged those who had bought property from Turks before
the war, to restore it to them, receiving the equivalent in paper money of
what they had paid at the time of the purchase. The local administrative
judicial and ather authorities were functioning according to his nods,
imprisoning or acquitting at the notifications or orders of the tyrant. He
obtained great sums of
money from the Greeks, for
having the coast line guarded against any landing of foreign troops there. He
terrorized the Christian population of the city with bands of robbers, which
he sustained until they became the scourge of the Christians, beating and
robbing whomsoever they pleased.
the middle of June 1920, a Greek motor boat of 400 tons, coming from Batoum
had to stop at Kerassunde because of engine damage. The crew of the boat,
consisting of captain Marinos Mariades with his French wife, two Russians,
possessing some eight or nine millions roubles and nine other persons were
caught as prisoners of war by Osman Agha and put into jail 20 or 25 days.
Later he sent them to the interior with the exception of the French wife of
the captain. The men
were killed at a distance of two kilometers from Kerassunde and the
French lady was sent to
the end of the same month Osman Agha Feridinoglou killed
Thomaidis, the only Greek physician of the city, in the following tragic way:
He had him invited to be present together with three other Turkish physicians
at the birth of a child. On reaching the house they were told that they had to
examine an insane person. They all went in, Thomaides accompanied by his
father, who suspected some danger. They were received by a cut-throat, armed
to the teeth. Two of the Turkish doctors escaped, by jumping out of a window.
Thomaides and the third doctor were
killed by the murderer, together with Totnaides' father, who had run to
his son's assistance. The event was immediately reported to the governor of
a diligently woven up calumny about the violation of a Mohammedan girl's honor
by a certain Greek named Panayotis, f rom fifty to sixty Christians bearing
this name and fifteen women were arrested and beaten pitilessly by the organs
of Osman. Two of the men, named Panayotis H. Sekirkenides and Panayotis A.
Seitanides were led away to a villa of Osman Agha where they were
slaughtered after undergoing the cruellest of tortures.
the beginning of August 1920, a rumour spread in Kerassunde,
that allied men-of-war were on their way there. Satrap Osman Agha
immediately sent the Turkish inhabitants to the interior, leaving the
Christians in the city. Then he asked a few Turks, who still remained there
and certain Christian notables, to confer in common about confronting the
enemy. The Christians knew the real purpose of the invitation and they did not
show up. On the day after, a systematic search was made in the Christians
homes and persons hiding were discovered. These were to be sent to
koulak-Kaya, where Osman Agha had
his victims slaughtered. Wailing and crying followed the Agar's
decision. Women come to him in tears and on their knees beseeched him to
change his mind, for they knew that slaughter was awaiting those arrested.
Osman was convinced, it is not known how and he spared them but he confined
500 of them in the school as hostages, who he swore solemnly to massacre if
the infidels (Englishmen, Frenchmen, and Greeks) dared land at Kerassunde.
These 500 were guarded by custodians, murderous instruments of Osman Agha and
were allowed in groups of 10-12 to see their families now and then and return
to the school again.
report received in August, 1920, contained among other points, the following:
“The financial condition of the inhabitants of Kerassunde is frightful. The
horrors of famine threaten all the Christians. They come as the natural
consequence of taxation, surpassing all limits, heavily oppressive, sucking
the very blood of the unlucky people. What a deplorable situation! For need of
money, they sell the last jewels, articles of furniture and the like, which
they have left, in order to satisfy the greed of the Ottoman gluttons.
Undergoing constantly the most straining exaction, lacking the necessary means
to make up for a part at least of their financial privations, having always
before them the picture of daily arrests and of exile, they avoid leaving
their homes to look for means of living. The few owners of shops stay at home
for the same reasons and their shops remain shut except for a few hours,
according to the will of the monster, Osman Agha, so that his heroes may have
a chance to lay hands on what they may like to appropriate for
news received at the Patriarchate during the last days certifies that the
situation of the Christian population of
the beginning, robberies had taken such an extent in all the districts of Ceasarea,
that communication between the different villages had completely
April 1919, Stephen Charalambous and Savas Anastasiou from Koumourtse were
killed. The latter was in company of his son. They were returning from
Sis, in the
Tserah, returning from Azizie, province of Sivas, was
killed between the two villages of Kourbali and Ouzoun Bounar and
stripped of all he had with him.
the community of Urkub the exciseman of Eyub, for a small amount owed by the
community, beat cruelly the Sexton of the Church of S. John and then entered
the Church, took away all the holy objects from the Altar and sold them in a
25th of May 1920, about a thousand Circassiens entered Yosgast and
held it for 14 days. On the 21st of June, when the town was
occupied again by the Kemalist troops, the Circassiens, under the supervision
of their commander Edhem Bey, began first to
plunder and then to massacre all Greeks and Armenians. The slaughter took
place in the market-place, so no one could be saved. Many girls were violated,
many houses were set on fire and many were wounded. Their corpses after four
days were gathered and by cleaning “caits” and without any religious
ceremony, were thrown into a ditch outside the town. Among the killed
is Rev. John Architectonides, Parish-Priest of Keugloukioi in the
the 8th of September, 1919, the regular Kemalist army, under the
leadership of the infamous for his cruelty officer Djemil, entered the village
of Otsoglou (two hours away from Yosgat), and caused all the villagers, 280
in number, and all Greek, to gathered in the church. Then, after violating
beastly all the women and girls in the presence of their fathers, husbands and
brothers, he killed them. Then he killed all males, not excepting small
babies. One baby was found killed, sucking his slain mother. From this
terrible slaughter only 24 people could escape, having run away before the
arrival of the troops. As the Kemalist army had the intention to invade and
massacre all the surrounding villages, the poor inhabitants were obliged to
leave their homes and to go to the mountains, where many of them perished.
situation in this district had always been unbearable and every day was
14th of March, Agapios Ghianoglou from Permate,
was killed near
his house in
the end of May, 1919, some
Christians from New Sehir, who had benighted near Ak-Serai, were
robbed, beaten and mutilated. In the same month, Turkish brigands
robbed all those passing from Eregli to Ouloukisla (
September 1919, in Pozkir, Chrisafis Arslanoglou and mason George where killed.
Mason Pantelis, his wife Despina, the widow of the barber George, her son
Jordan, Socrates Ghiavroglou, his wife Rebeca and two other masons were
Nationalist movement of Moustafa Kemal inspired the Turks hate and fanaticism
against everything Christian and Greek.
Consequently the Greeks, fearing to be massacred, tried to escape danger, by
immigrating to other countries.
did not cease in the district of Angora and particularly in Kaza of Haimana,
where all business transactions among the non-Moslem population were
consequently completely paralyzed. The brigands remain unpunished, because the
Government Authorities claimed their gendarmerie force was insufficient.
July 1919, the miller George Vassiloglou was
murdered at a spot, two hours away from the station of Alpou Keuy,
beyond the city of
Christian communities were terrorized. The male Christians of Eski Shehir were
deported from the town, after being imprisoned and heavily taxed. Violations
and murders were perpetrated, details of which have not yet been
received. Houses of Christians were robbed of their furniture and even of
10 to 12 years of age were mercilessly beaten
as they were conducted to the military headquarters to be questioned if their
fathers, uncles or brothers were hiding and to disclose where they could be
found. Irregular and regular soldiers drove people out of their homes and
entering the Christian houses, carried away everything they wanted.
people in the district of Kutahia were called to enlist and the Greek
community of that town was asked to deliver 245 military rifles with
proportionate quantities of ammunition, for their exemption from military
service. But the Greeks of that town had no rifles and had to purchase them. A
committee was then formed by Messrs Anastasios Symeonidis, a lawyer, and
Yannakos Papadopoulos, a merchant, who were given passes by Ismail Hakky Bey
himself and went to the surrounding villages to buying fire-arms. At the same
time Ismail Hakky sent the chieftain Pehlivan, at the head of a band of
irregular soldiers to the same villages. The aforesaid Anastasios Symeonidis
and Yannakas Papadopoulos, with their coach-driver Ilia Sakidji, were
aprehended in the middle of July by a band of rebels and were carried to
Tcham-lidja, a neighboring grove of pine-trees, near the village of Ova-Keuy,
where all three were
tied with popes and killed after horrible tortures. The bodies of the
unfortunate men, with the assistance of villagers of Ova-Keuy, were found by
some Greeks four days after the crime, lead by the dogs of the village. Anastasios
Symeonides had his right thigh pierced by a red-hot iron and had a deep
bayonet wound in his stomach. The toes of both his feet were separated by deep
cuts and the soles of his feet had wide wounds caused by a sharp tool.
Yannakos Papadopoulos and the coachman Ilias Sakidjis had deep wounds in their
chests caused by a sharp tool. These two men had apparently not been tortured.
The bodies were brought to the Greek cemetery of Kutahia, placed into a casket
and buried after a fourth victim, Constantinos Takinakoglou, was added to
their member, who had been killed in the outskirts of the town on the previous
day. The real perpetrators of these crimes were Edhem and Ismail Hakky. To a
committee of Greeks, which called upon them to ask about the men who had not
returned home, these officers replied that they were sent to invite the Greek
army to come and take possession of Kutahia. They moreover threatened the
committee with imprisonment.
murders followed the above mentioned crimes.
Two Greeks, Constantinos Demerdjis and Nicolas Abajis were
murdered in a mill near the town. Five others, Pandelis Karagiorzis,
Haralambos Karabournis, Anastasios Seraphimidis and two others whose names
have not been ascertained, were
murdered by Tevfik Bey, Edhem Bey's brother, near the village
Tourgoutlar, after being tied by their hands at their backs with a rope. These
men's bodies had remained unburied. Lazaros Mihailidis and three others
were murdered by a Band of irregulars in a village where they had gone to
repair a Mosque. Costis Zeibekoglou, Dimitrios Akbabas and three others,
Armenian coachmen, were seized by Kemalists and forced to go to the front at
Getis. There the coaches and horses were taken from them and the men were
ordered to go back to where they had come from. But
only after walking a few steps, they were shot from behind and killed.
measure of gradual annihilation was used against the defenseless Greek
population of Kutahia, as if all these crimes were not sufficient.
On the 28th of August, 27 notables of the Greek community were
arrested and following a plan, well organized beforehand, they were joined by
other men from the Armenian and Armeno-Catholic communities. Then they all
were unjustly displaced to Eski Shehir and thence to the district of Angora.
On the following day, a public herald announced that all Christian males,
above the age of 15, should assemble at an appointed place, under penalty of
death for disobedience. On assembling, all those who could not walk, as well
as the lame, blind and old, were thrown into railway carriages and sent to
Eski Shehir, while the remaining men, 543 Greeks and a few Armenians and
Armeno-Chatolics, were marched off under escort of gendarmes and irregulars.
This last convoy was met near the village Sofdji by a section of a regiment,
which, while lead to Bolou by Ismail Hakky Bey, had mutinied and killed all
the Albanians entrusted by him. The fierce Ismail Hakky was also severely
wounded. On meeting the mutineers this wretched convoy of the deported men,
they killed the escorting gendarmes and irregulars and ordered the Christians
to return to Kutahia. Panic seized the Christians hearing gun shots. Some of
the remaining attempted to run away, but they were fire at by the mutineers
and three of them were killed: Haralambos Kodjagas, Vassilios Koulakli, and
Kyriakos Papailiou, while two others were wounded. Most of the others returned
to Kutahia, after many vicissitudes, and hid themselves in their homes. About
forty men are missing from this convoy, their fate being still unknown. Those
sent to Eski Shehir were sent back to Kutahia by railway by order of Ali Fuad
Pasha. But Edhem's brother, Tevfik Bey, to spite Ali Fuad Pasha, sent them
back to Eski Shehir, and thence to
district and some particular regions in it, were
terrorized in an incredible manner.
October 1918, Matheos Constantinides of Varla, went to Polavatin (district of
Afion Cara Hissar) and was murdered
in the house of Sari Ahmed Agha. In the same month Vassilios Yeorghiou
Lazaroglou, barely 18
years of age, was killed at Karamik (a town in the district of
Polavatin) by Ibrahim Osman Tchavoushoglou, whose sheep he was keeping.
a report from Adalia, dated August 16th, 1919, the following
statement was included: “Besides the 3 Greeks, who some time ago disappeared
between Adalia and Stanaz, 8 more Greeks are missing;
3 at the mill of Doryan three weeks ago, and within five or six days 7 more,
i.e. an Armenian and 6 Greeks, disappeared at Kumnitza (near Phoenix).
Brigands attacked that village in broad daylight and after much looting of
goods and money, they carried off those 7
Christians to some unknown destination. No Christians are left in the
surrounding villages. None of our people dare go to the Turkish villages to
work, and the farmers have abandoned their fields to their fate. Some days ago
Turkish gendarmes have
murdered on the quay of Macri the physician of the Greek Red Cross in that
Kemal's hordes, after their retreat from the “Meander” front, settled in
the district of Pisidia. At
Damianos Kahramanoglou, one of the Greek notables of Sparta, a much esteemed
citizen and head of a respectable family, and also a woman, called Kyriakoula
Hodjekoglou, both died
of their wounds. The former having being cruelly
beaten and the latter after being shot with a pistol.
Mehmed Efe, the infamous butcher of the Christians of Denizli ordered that all
the treasures of the Churches of the Jjreek community of
September 1920, the condition of the Greeks in these districts got worse and
worse. Since a section of the “Iron Regiment” settled in Sparta and Hafiz
Bey, and the chieftain of that regiment returned from the National Assembly at
Angora, the regular government authorities of the districts were suppressed
and replaced by followers of Mustafa Kemal and the “Union and Progress”
for security and order was noticeable in places inhabited by Christians. Fanatical
Turks, particularly Turks from
October 1918, some Turks at Ahmedli (of the district of Kassaba, Government of
Magnessia) went to the house of Polycarpos Papadopoulos, situated near the
Government house and killed
his 14 old year son Benjamin and his brother-in-law Dimitrios, after tying
them. Then they robbed the house and went away. In the same month,
Sevastos Bakalyorgis, a notable of Axar, was
murdered by Turks.
the 4th of January, 1919, the chief of the police at Vourla,
Hussein Effendi, a well known Christian hater, on learning the hiding-place of
H. Mytaras, a deserter from the army, took a policemen and 15 gendarmes and
hastened to apprehend him. When a policeman entered the hiding place, he was
shot by the deserter and fell dead. The local authorities then giving
political significance to the incident, besieged
the town of
the same month, near the village of Kushjular, district of Vourla, Dimitrios
Krasas, 18 years old,
while carrying food to his father, staying in the country, was killed
by two Turks, named Hussein and Nouri, from the above village. After
this crime, the same men caught another Greek, named Markos Hadji Nicoli, near
the place Tchakallar and robbed him. They let him go only after ascertaining
that the man was a servant of a Turk.
June 1919, the Archdeacon of the Bishopric of
the night of June 6th to 7th of the same year 1919, Turkish
brigands carried off and hanged three Greeks from the
condition of the Christians living outside the Greek zone of occupation is
continually critical owing the oppressive measures of all kinds taken against
them by the “Nationalist Organization”. The heaviest form of the
oppressions exerted is the intolerable and continuous taxation of the Greeks,
because the enormous sums demanded are entirely out of proportion and beyond
the financial position of the Greek communities. The object of such a heavy
taxation is the complete financial exhaustion of those communities.
army's advance has liberated all the remaining districts of this diocese,
except Scalanova. The Christians of the latter district are cruelly oppressed
and the community in the above town is in danger of dissolution, owing to the
threatened confiscation of all its real estates and property.
district was terrorized by a gang of Turks who even after the Armistice,
carried on with their criminal work, out of hostility for the Greeks
inhabitants. Many Greeks were murdered and much property was robbed. The
following list or murders perpetrated in the district of Sokia from the time
of the conclusion of the Armistice to the end of August 1919, is a true
picture of the terrorization and the destruction, which continues in this
Further information was not received, owing to the interruption of all
communication between this diocese and the Patriarchate of
February 20th, a charcoal dealer, loannis Xanthias from Macri, was
killed by gendarmes, as he was working in the country.
March 13th, the carter Manouel Lazos from Scalanova, carrying a
load from Sokia to Scalanova, was
caught by Turkish peasants on the way and killed.
April 11th, Mihail Protoclitou from Sokia was
killed by Turkish peasants at the place called “Yourdani”, between
Sokia and Kelembesh. His
body was thrown into the Meander and after a few days it was washed out by the
April 28th, loannis Nasos of Yeronda was
killed by brigands near the Turkish village Bafi.
May 28th, Athanasios Spyroglou of Ak-keuy, a sergeant of the Greek
army, visiting Sokia
on leave, was killed near the Italian barracks.
May 29th, Joakim G. Deres, a notable farmer of Kelembesh, was killed
by Turkish peasants together with the woman Theodora Parasskeva, at the
place called Gumenes. On the same day Thrasyvoulos Bedelis of Vagarasi, was
kiled in his farm near the village Vagarasi.
May 30th, Evangelos Kambour Andoni was
killed at the farm of the brothers Gavriloglous, where he was at work.
June 2nd, Thomas Saroglou and Pandelis Mavrou from Sokia, were
killed by Turks at a place called Bounarakia near Sokia, as they were
returning home from their work. On the same day the Greeks
Georgios Margietis, Emmanuel Kanayos and Efstathios Efstathiou were
killed at Tchangli by
June 3rd, Emmanuel Tsakiris, his grandson Nicolas and Nicolaos
savagely cut to pieces, while sleeping in the meadow of the sheep-pen
of the Turkish Cretan Garib Hussein. On the same day Yannakos Boyadjis of
Sokia was killed
at the farm of the brothers Fourneti. His body has disappeared. Yet on the
same day, Nicolas Bateskas, a notable of the
June 4th, the Christians Athanassious Sotirakis, loannis
Tsakourellis, Andonios Tsakourellis, Theodoros Alevras and Emanuel
savagely cut up to pieces at the place Sari Tchai twenty minutes away
from the village of Vagarasi. On the same day
June 6th, Evangelos
Bayoukas was killed by
Turkish brigands at the place Zia Bey Tchiflik.
June 8th, loannis
June 10th, Pandelis Pericleous from Sokia and Vassilios Andonion of
Domatia, while tending their oxen at the place called Kamarya, were
killed by Turkish peasants and their bodies were thrown into the river Meander.
June 12th, Theodosios Mammis from Scalanova, a miller in the town
June 14th, Dimitrios Rondos, a gardener from the
June 16th, Hadji Georgios Haloutsos from Scalanova,
was killed on
the way from Sokia to Scalanova. On the same day, Georgios Karabetsos of
Vagarasi was killed
with gun and knifed at the place called Giol Boghaz, twenty minutes away from
the village Vagarasi.
June 13th, Michail Dal Panayoti from Sokia was
killed by Turkish Cretans with a gun, while at work in Evrysthenis
Bagtchevanakis tobacco field.
June 25th, Marcos Vlachos, Evangelos Koulias and Manouel Nikitoglou
June 26th Georgios Karaiskos from Vagarasi, was
killed at the place called “Islam Vagarasi”, while at work in the
farm of the Turk Omer Aga. On the same day Georgios Tsipnis from Vagarasi was
killed by Turkish peasants outside the
June 27th, loannis Rodios from Vaarasi, was
killed by Turkish peasants
July 3rd, Emmanuel Masakas from Sokia, was
killed by Turkish Cretans at Deirmen Dere, while at work in the mills
July 3rd, Sotirios Kirkitzotis of Kelembesh, working in the
sheep-pen of Xenophon Anastasiadis was
killed by Turks from the
July 11th, Aslanis Vasiloglou from Sokia was killed
by gendarmes at the place called Kapakli Bounarnear Kelembesh.
July 15th, Constantinos Melembiscou was
killed in his sheep-pen by Turks from the
July 22nd, Constantinos Xiropsomis and his wife Morphi, from
Kelembesh, were killed
by a Turkish sergeant and gendarmes at the
July 22nd, the women Calliopi Argyriou, Urania Tsardoulia, Despina
Tsardoulia, Maria Spanou Argyro Spanou and the 10
year old boy Georgios Tsardoulias were carried off by Turkish Cretans
from the tobacco fields of Kerim Arnaout, where they were at work, and they
were killed after being violated.
August 1st, Constantinos Vikos from Neohori,
was killed in
the country by Circassians at a place only half an hour distant from the
village. The same criminals badly wounded in the thigh a widow from Neohori,
August 122th, Georgios N. Hadji Iliadis, while returning with two Armenians
from Scalanova to Sokia, was
killed with his companions at Kranta.
August 14th, Constantinos Zambioglou from Kelembesh, leading sheep
to Kelembesh and escorted by two Turkish gendarmes, was killed at a place
called Oz Bashi.
August 27th, Georgios N. Tsangliotou, loannis K. Vouta and
Stylianos Hiotatis from Sokia, who had gone to cut wood,
were killed by Turkish Cretans at Karaoghlan, an
hours away from Sokia.
August 23rd, Grigorios Kambouroglou from Neori, working in the
sheep-pen of the Turkish Cretan Kior Ali, in Zia Bey's farm, disappeared and
no trace of his body has been found. On the same day, Demosthenis Philippou
August 30th, Georgios Zeibekis and his son Panayis, who had gone to
attention is invited to the fact that this district has received the hardest
and wildest blows of Turkish ferocity. It witnessed the annihilation of its
Christian population, which was not mandated by any purely military reasons.
It heard the wailings and the distressed cries of countless Christians carried
away to exile and to slaughter. When the political situation clears up, the
civilized world will be horrified to find out all that the Christian
population has suffered in the hands of the Turks, whether government
officials or private individuals.
shall, for the present, confine ourselves to the complete destruction of the
the destruction of Aidin, 800 women and children were sent off by railway to
Nazli and Denizli, on June 18th and 19th, 1919. During
the deportation a number of the people were killed, among them Archdeacon
Joachim Gounaris, as already stated above. When the unfortunate people were
installed in the place of exile, they were tortured in various ways. Some of
them were compelled to work without pay, others had their clothing and covers
taken away, though they were the only objects they had. Nine of them who had
stayed at Nazli were shot by order of the brigand chief, the bloodthirsty
Yuruk Ali. This villain went into a Christian house opposite the church and
tried to shoot down the cross on the roof of the church. As he missed it, he
became furious and ordered all prisoners to be put to death. His order was
about to be executed when the Mufti of Nazli, moved by really humane
sentiments, appeased the brigand's fury, by delivering to him 9 of the
youngest and richest prisoners. Among those who then perished at Nazli, was
the Archimandrite Matheos Pavlidis of the
the suffferings of the miserable prisoners of Nazli and Denizli were not yet
at an end. Such wild scenes of horrors are seldom to be met in history. An
official report based on correct information, give the following narration:
the evening of
June 13th to 16th
, 1920, Turco-Cretan rebels and Turkish inhabitants of Nazli, speaking Greek
and wearing Greek military uniforms, went through the Greek quarter and called
out to the hiding Christians to leave their houses, for the Greek army, they
said, had entered Nazli and they were Greek soldiers. Those who believed the
deceiving calls and left their hiding places,
were seized and put to death with horrible tortures.
Greek workmen, working on the bridge of Ak-Tchai on the Meander and on the
road to Bozdogan, were also carried away on June 12th and probably
put to death.
the events at Aidin of June 1919, a crowd of 7.000 Greeks, coming from Aidin,
Omourlou, Akdje, Kiosk, and other towns of the Aidin, district had gathered at
Nazli. The losses of the Greek population of that district up to the time of
the Turks' departure from Nazli may be stated as follows:
From June 17th, 19l9 to
60 persons, mostly women and children, whose men were long ago murdered, were
burned alive, and their charred remains were found and recognized;
59 Greek workmen were carried away, probably thrown into the river Meander;
4 Greeks were tortured
and murdered and their bodies were thrown into the river Meander on the
evening of the 12th of June by the brigand chief Dikouzoun Hassan
Hussein and his 8 followers;
40 Greeks who remained at Nazli were found;
The remaining Greek inhabitants of Nazli were deported to Denizli, Davazon
etc., and 20 of these,
mostly women, were massacred on the road from Nazli to Kouyoudjak.
this tragedy”, writes Mgr. Chrysostomos, Bishop of
next day after the “Iron Regiment” arrived at Denizli, the Archdeacon
Xenophon Raptakis, barefoot and without his clerical cap and robe, was brought
before the commander of that regiment. The latter gave a pair of scissors to
the Archdeacon and compelled him to cut his beard and hair and threw them
away. After that he sat near the Archdeacon and said mockingly to him:
"See how handsome you now look. The only thing left for you now, is to
deny your Christ, to wear a turban, and to become a Musulman. You will be a
noted man among the faithful”. But the Archdeacon scornfully rejected the
proposition saying that he preferred to die than to deny Christ. The
bloodthirsty commander, furious at such a reply, ordered
the Archdeacon to be tortured and beheaded. The courageous clergyman died a
predatory bands of the “Nationalist organization”, attempted four times to
penetrate into the town of
the danger threatening the body of the Christian community was thus averted,
isolated crimes against individual Christians did not cease. For instance,
Younous Mehmed, president of the local “Nationalist” organization, had
fallen in love with the pretty daughter of the Greek notable Georgios
Veopoulos. Orders were given to the men of the “Nationalist”
organizations, and the unfortunate father, who did not consent to such an
odious union, was carried away with his friend Sophocles Baxevanis. Both
were killed between Katcharli and the river Tchina, after being put through
many cruel tortures.
the Sunday before Lent, the members of Council of the “Nationalist”
Organizations arrested 14 Greek notables and condemned them to death without
trial. Italian soldiers intervened at the moment when the men were brought to
the square of the town to be hanged. Meanwhile agents of these organizations murdered
Yannacos Milionis an old man, notable of Aidin, Dr. Hardalotipas, a dentist,
and 3 others from Sokia. Mr. Sapoudjis from Yambis, the brothers Antonios and
Joannis Symeon Baxevani, Theodoros Bakalis, Statnatios Karathanasiou and many
other Greeks, were conducted from Sokia and the neighbouring villages to the
Court Martial of Demirdji Efe at Nazli, but were
killed outside of Kotcharli.
brigand chief Yuruk Ali, entering by force into the mill of Mihail
his daughter Efthymia. Another brigand chief Koulaksiz, accompanied by
eight followers of Yuruk Ali, forced his way into the house of Dimitrios
Tenekedjis and violated
his three daughters Maria, Eleni and Irini. The Managing Council of the
“Nationalist” Organizations of Kotcharli was composed of the following
men, all notorious for their criminal instincts and their anti-Christian
sentiments: Hadji Yunus Mehmed, President; Husni Bey, Vice-President and
Treasurer; and the members Sarioglou Mevlout, KaraOmaroglou Nazim,
HafizTefvik, Kolmemourou Kadir, Molla Dourmoush, Emin Effendi, Fuad Bey of
Aid>n, and Kiamil ex-mayor of Kara Bounar.
district has also suffered considerably from the savage instincts of the
Turks, at first immediately after the Armistice, but chiefly after the
military operations in
secret provisional government was organized at
brigands were walking armed to the teeth in the streets of
Government authorities secretly assisted these “Nationalist” Organizations
by various means. But the situation had become so desperate, that even the
the pretext of installing Mohammedan refugees, Fdhem Bey arbitrarily seized
most of the Christian houses with everything in them, and imposed heavy taxes
on the Christian population for sustaining the “Nationalist” troops. He
moreover imposed many humiliations on the ill-fated Christians, by beating,
insulting, imprisoning and exiling them. He condemned to death several Greeks,
particularly strangers to the place, who were stopping there on their way to
their homes, on various trifling charges. These
men, considered to be Greek spies, were annihilated without any sort of trial.
was the condition, when the Greek army began its attack last February at
against the Greeks was kept up and inflamed by preachers and speakers
specially sent from Angora, by theatrical plays, by public lectures, by
boycotting and other unlawful and arbitrary measures.
sufferings of the town and district of
terrible tragedy, however, took place in other parts of this district. The
Greek army, advancing from Salihli in the latter days of July 1920, occupied
Demirdji, where about 90 Christians remained after their last persecutions.
The Mohammedan inhabitants of the town of
The districts of
The people of district of Tcheshme had been deported en mass and returned to
their homes, only after the liberation of the town by the Greek army.
The Communities of Biza and Lambsacos in the diocese of
is particularly noted, that immediately after the Armistice, the Turks in this
district, whether Government officials or private citizens, were hostile and
threatening to the Christian population.
Turkish newspapers published at
Erdek and particularly on the road between Erdek and Panderma, bands of
brigands made their appearance from the neighbouring Turkish villages of
Hamamli and Edindjik, during all the spring and summer of 1919. These bands
were under the command of the Circassians Mustafafa and Refik and robbed
travellers or Christians going to work in their fields.
July 1919, the Moukhtar of Kermasti, Constantinos Soukadjidis and his friend
Anastasios Fatsos, while returning to Panderma, were waylaid by a Turkish band
of six brigands near the village Kadikeuy of the district of Mihalitch. The
first saved himself by giving up all he had in
clothing and in money, but the
second was killed because he had no money to give.
early October of 1919, some
gendarmes caught the Priest Photios returning from Erdek to Vathy and
beat him mercilessly asking for money.
the end of September of 1919, some gendarmes forced their way into the
Monastery of the Phaneromeni, broke the sacred utensils and other articles in
the church, tore the sacerdotal robes, took off the silver cover from the
image of the Virgin Mary, destroyed all they could find in the monastery, beat
the superintendent Priest Alexios and
killed Yovannaki son of Costa Papadaki.
February 1919, brigands from the Turkish
April 18th, 1919, gendarmes went to the villages of Gedje and
Sycaminea, where they looted houses and goods, beat the villagers and forcing
their way into the church of Gedje, carried away all that they found in
silver. Similar maltreatment experienced the
June 1st, of 1919, a detachment of troops commanded by the Governor
of Erdek and the gendarmerie chiefs of Erdek and Pandermawent went to the
village Ano Neochori, where they committed various atrocities. They
beat cruelly Sotirios, the Priest of the village and savagely massacred the
following men: loannis, the Priest's son, Kosmas Milidis, Thomas
Tsakirisjoannis S. Milidis, loannis Chr. Milidis, Thomas Tsakiris, loannis
Zakkas, Dimitrios and Constantinos Evangelou, Yannakis Kostas, Sotirios
Kostas, Christos Karavelas, Nicolaos Stephanou, Sotirios Kafedjis, Photios
Koutois, Yacoumis Kodjas, Kostis, loannis
Nicolaos Koukouledakis and Constantinos Djourakis. The
mutilated bodies of these men were found in the mountain defiles.
people of this district, who were almost in their entirety deported during the
war and suffered cruelly, were not left unmolested after they returned to
their homes. The Turkish villagers of Araplar were chiefly those who joined
the Laz pirates and other brigands, in order to attack the Greek communities
of the islands of the Marmara Sea, which form this ecclesiastical district.
These communities, and particularly the community of the
situation in this district was never entirely satisfactory, but it became
really intolerable in the days of Gumuldjinali Ismail Hakky Bey, the fanatic
governor of the province, who was the organizer of marauding bands and as he
had openly declared, that his task was not to govern: “But to act as a «gazetadji,
firkadji and comitadji» (journalist, party man, and political intriguer)”.
August 18th, 1919, the sergeant Safet Tchaoush, accompanied by
gendarmes, caught the Greek Theologos Apostolou, returning from the village of
Sousourlouk and beat him cruelly. He robbed him of his money and then let him
go. On September 8th of the same year, Dimitrios Hadji Georgiou was
murdered with his 13 year old son Alexandros, at Tepedjik, by Turks
district had for a long time been terrorised by Turkish and especially Laz
bands. Robberies in the streets, raids of Christian communities and abductions
of Christian notables, were none but too frequent.
community of Mihalitch underwent martyrdom under the very eyes of the
officials, who repeatedly attempted to Islamise
young girls, who had not yet come of age.
the end of July 1919 gendarmes fired several rounds at farmers working in the
small plain of Kios, wounding Demetros Matselli. At the same time five Turkish
brigands carried away Leonidas Polydorou Garyfali, as well as two Armenians,
to the Turkish
August, Spyros Artakenos went to work in an olive wood near Kios. He
never came back.
January 1920, Turks from Mejikeh killed
Demetros Nicologlou, Stylianou Stoyanoglou and
March 1920 began and in July ended the horrible
tragedy of the once flourishing community of Ortakey and of its
homonymous region. This tragedy is described thus, in a report dated Aug. 7:
On March 13th, third day of Easter, the Kemalist division -
commandant Mahmout Bey - accompanied by Col. Moustapha, Major Samy, his chief
of staff Samy Bey, 700 soldiers, two pieces of artillery and two machine guns,
armed Turks from the villages Estseler, Akkaya, Sarajadi and Kurfalar and by
the brigand corps of Tarakli, surrounded Ortakeuy and opened fire against the
town. The inhabitants sent begging for a ceasefire and asking for the reasons
of the siege. The Turks, however, continued the fire under the pretence of
disarming the inhabitants. The latter in their despair put up a defence for
three days, after which, their means being exhausted, they surrendered. The
besiegers had hardly entered the village, when the pillaging of the richest
houses began, accompanied by the robbing of all met in the streets, as well as
by beatings, violations and the murders. 38 houses were destroyed by fire.
Then, the chief of the assailants called the Priests and the notables and
forcibly collected from the inhabitants: 1) 1450 liras as a war indemnity, 2)
1000 liras as a war contribution and 3) 4000 liras for taxes in arrears of the
preceding and running year. The pillage lasted for three days. After the
departure of the army, the Turks of the neighbouring villages continued the
sacking for another ten days, carrying away 300 horses, 700 oxen and 1300
sheep and goats. So rich were the spoils, that it was said by the soldiers,
that though they had often pillaged Armenian villages, they had never seen
such wealth as that at Ortakeuy. The army departed carrying also away 38
notables and the two Priests of Ortakeuy, who were later taken to
court-martial in Eski-sheir.
In July, 1920, the famous brigand Ghiavour Ali leading a band of 200, arrested
over 70 Greeks and Armenians living in the Railway Station of Gheiveh, shot
them all dead and threw their bodies in the river Sangarius. He then
went to Grtakeuy.
the same time the gendarmerie at Gheiveh arrested the Greek and Armenian
government officials, robbed them of the money and books, of which they were
in charge, cast them into prison and later killed
them all, men, women and children outside Gheiveh in the presence and
with the assistance of the Public Debt Guard Ali Riza, Ridvan Tchaoush and ten
soldiers of the Turkish reserve. Then Ghiavour Ali went to Ortakeuy, Goudi,
and Burhanieh and under the pretence that the deportation of the Greeks to
Tavackli had been decided, arrested all the inhabitants, men, women and
children. Then led them in three groups to the bank of the Gallus, a tributary
of the river Sangarius, and after
robbing them of everything precious, slaughtered them all. Their bodies
were either thrown in the shallow brook nearby or were sprinkled with
petroleum and burned. The remaining 150 houses of Ortakeuy were set on fire. 50
women and children shut up in the Armenian church,
were devoured by the flames. The brigands had surrounded the church,
barring any escape.
detachments were later on sent to the woods and set them on fire, to burn all
who had taken refuge in them. Those who had succeeded in getting away, were
hunted down with the aid of bloodhounds and were caught and slaughtered
at Kara Jam.
Ali picked out for himself the prettiest of the most beautiful young girls. 10
of them he sent to prominent Kemalists in Gheiveh, as presents. Some of those
girls were killed after they had suffered all kinds of violence and shame and
others were led to Turkish harems.
unfortunate wife of the Greek named Kakos, was violated by eight Turks in
succession and then torn asunder. The genital organs of several men and the
breasts of women were cut off. Their bodies were cut open and their intestines
taken out and scattered. Arms and legs were cut off of poor people who were
then burnt alive. The heads of children and babies were smashed against rocks
or walls. In other cases little children were taken to the bank of the river
and ordered to wade across. The poor things wanting to avoid drowning tried to
return to the bank, but then they were bayoneted. The body of one of them bore
the distinct marks of 11 such bayonet wounds.
Goudithe, said Ali stood on the Altar and having the women and children around
him, proclaimed himself their God, whose wrath was to be appeased only through
money and abundant blood of infidels. He slaughtered them all. Such was the
horror, that mothers killed their own babies for fear of the worst.
fate of Ortakeuy was shared by the historic burghs of
visited the famous church and we found it in ruins. The Altar was brought
down. The famous Altar marble slab was broken to pieces. The church mosaics,
except those too high for the profane to reach, were destroyed. Several of the
many and ancient icons were broken and their valuable dedicative jewels
robbed. The strong and thick glass of two large icons of the Virgin and their
gold-plated frames were smashed. They were votive offerings of the late
Patriach Joachim III. All the lamps, candlesticks and holy vessels were either
stolen or broken to pieces. All the ecclesiastical books, archives, a record,
bearing the names of the Priests of the church from its very foundation, were
torn to pieces and thrown into the streets. The large and famous sarcophagus
in the south wall of the church, another in the north wall and the quaint
archaic larnax in the wall of the Holies, suffered irreparable damage. The two
well-known black columns, precious relics of Byzantine art and the large cross
on the dome, do not exist any more. The ground was
dug up by the sacrilegious Kemalists, in the hope of finding hidden treasure.
In a word no sacrilege was left undone.”
Turks, not satisfied with the destruction of the historical Christian
Cathedran, preceded to the annihilation of the Greek inhabitants of
the above tragedy was taking place and the two caves were being filled with
the dead mutilated bodies of Greeks, a horrible scene was happening in the
city and within the court of the church. Some women escaping the persecutions
took refuge inside the church, where
the house of the late Sophronius Stavrides, Exarch in
one Greek soul survived, Olga Thomas Valessoglou of Leuke, a victim of
Djemal's shameless passion. She now is in Kios, under the protection of the
Greek staff. She informed me of some of the events that took place in
villages of Vezikhan, Kuplia, Bashkeuy, Adakeuy, Kizil Kavak, Aktchi Sehir'
Peltes and Suyut had the same fate in the hands of the Christian and Greek
haters. Papoujak Dervent escaped, losing only 50 men, while the remaining 1503
were saved and they are now residing in Zouncouldack, near Broussa.
the destruction of
crimes terrified the desperate Greeks. A native “Hodja” took the
opportunity and pressured them to turn Mohammedans, to save their lives. The
great danger for their existence, made them accept Mohammedanism, in the hope
that if they thus survived, they might later on be able return to the faith of
their forefathers. But all was in vain, for they had already been doomed. All
of them disappeared within a fortnight. It has been said that very few girls
and some women escaped death, by being carried off to Turkish harems.
bands of brigands had held this region in terror.
They had raised panic by raids on the Christian villages, frequent
shootings and merciless beatings, as well as by all kinds of ill treatments,
to which they subjected the notables of those villages and even the village
Priests. They also went about pillaging and robbing the houses of all that
could be moved. The local gendarmes often took an active part in these
February 1919, the gendarme Arif beat and mortally
wounded a Christian named Stylianos, who was on his way from
March 1919, a band under the leadership of the sons of certain Beys of the
villages Hainsiz, Pri-mikir, and Djambaz, killed
an old man named John Malea, murdered
also John Papagheorghiou from Kekeia and submitted to horrible torture
the Mouhtar of the village Theodore Kazi, who was thrown into a fire and was
barely saved. Yanni
Panton and George Hadjuli, were mercilessly beaten
and died of their wounds.
July 17th, the gendarmes of the prison of the
July 20th, a Turkish-Laz band of 15, murdered
Michael Antonoglou and John Vassiloglou on their way from Elmali to Ak-keuy.
Five days later another band robbed Nicolas Vlissitoura's grocery in Courtkeuy
and carried him away.
His body was found by chance, at a short distance from the village on
August 22nd, Georges Eliou from St. Kyrake (Ya-lova), was found dead
near Tchinar (Yalova)
August 15th young Paul D. Vassiloglou was
murdered on his way from
October 1st, an Albanian band murdered
the miller Pericles Daidinis two miles away from Tepe-Keuy.
November 5th, Anastassios John Papadopoulos of Kirk Hamam was
murdered just outside the Turkish village Hamidie.
November 29th, an Albanian band, under the notorious Yahya
literally, cut to
pieces two men from Mi-halitch on their way to Kandra. On November 1st,
the same band, cut
to pieces, near Kaimaja Hadjigeorge, Jadji Demetrios, from Mihalitch.
November 25th, bandits wounded the night guard of the village
KaraTepe Theodore Tzalividis, leaving
him half dead.
Febrouary 1920, near the Armenian village Tefizli, 12 miles off
April 11th, the gardener John returning from Sapanja to
the occupation by Kemalists of
the first days of June 1923 the remaining troops of the
June 8th, the Priest Anastasios Donaxides, the Bishop's delegate
Paraskevas Gheorghiou, Kara Antonis and George Demetriou were
June 23rd, the “Kaimakam” of Karamoussal Kemal, leading a
detachment of soldiers and accompanied by Alaheddin Mehmed, Ajento, Ismail,
Riza Zeibek and Faik Tchaoush, raided Foulajik, carried
away the cattle and all they could lay hands on. Then opening fire on the crowd,
arrested all inhabitants, especially the men. Afterwards they locked up inside
the church all arrested. Then they demolished the church with bombs and machine-guns
and killed the people locked inside. Those who, in their despair, tried to escape,
were shot down or bayoneted by Kemalist. Several women were violated and many
young girls were abducted by the Nationalists. The Priests were tortured most
fiercely. A few, who succeeded in escaping, took refuge in the hills.
June 16th, robbers went into the
July 23rd, the inhabitants of Esme, threatened with massacre, left
their homes in terror. Similarly, the Christian inhabitants of the Laz
September 19th, the brothers Hip.
and Pan. Stylianou Areni from Heraclion were
massacred. After the crime the other inhabitants of the village crossed
conclusion of Αrmistice
brought no peace to this diocese. Government officials and private Turks
competed with each another in the ill-treatment of Christians.
the end of 1918, the fanatic governor of Pontoheracleia closed the community
school there, while an inspector of public schools shut down the one in
December, the students of the Turkish orphanage at Tchenghelkeuy went into the
chapel near by, and filled it with filth. In January 1919 they broke all the
wooden and marble crosses of
the community churchyard.
the beginning of the same year, 1919, the Turkish villagers of the district of
Ghevzeh commenced arming themselves and adopting a threatening attitude
towards the Christians of upper and
February 1919, the military police at Chalki beat many of the Christians,
leaving Andrew Zozos half dead.
February 12th, the Albanian band patronized by Ferid, attacked a
flour-mill of the village Kioselez, a distance of 10 miles from Ryssion, and horribly
tortured Paleologos Demetriou and his uncle, both from Neohorion. On
the 16th of the same month, the same band carried away Christos
Tzakissis from the village Zahtalar; he never came back.
February 21st, the same band tortured the shepherds Meletius and
Christo Tzakevoglou. On the 22nd the band seriously wounded and
robbed Demetrios J. Raphi from Ryssion.
February 26th, at about midnight, a band of Circassians in military
uniform, attacked the village Asa-keuy of Kandra, near Ada Bazar and after
terrorising its inhabitants by continuously firing for two hours, raided the
house of the notable Ch. Patossiadis and subjecting his wife and children to
horrible tortures left, taking away Christos, 200 liras in gold, the dowry of
the girl and other valuables worth 2000 liras. The
unfortunate notable was later found outside the village half dead and with one
of his ears cut off. The governor did nothing to arrest the criminals.
March Albanian bands
murdered the following: John Seraphim
Kalakzoglou, Dem. Hadji Veleshis, Ch. Katraftous, Ch. Sivris, Con.
Zarifi, Nic. Constandinidi, Au. Drakos, Sot.
Drakos, St. Bairlakakis. Dem. Gallos, St. Koupanikis' two sons and Basil Hadji
March 18th, two men from Pendik and two from Pasha-keuy had
their ears cut off.
March 20th, Albanians attacked Pendik and robbed the house of the
physician Dr. Salabantat, who owes his life to the British policemen who ran
to his help.
April, a detachment of regulars tortured in various ways the inhabitants of
Kourtchiyou, Yeniyer and Emin Atchmas of the Kaimakamlik of Dousdji. During
the same month a band of 30 raided one after another the villages of
Pasha-key, Buyuk and Kut-chuk Bakal-keuy, robbed the inhabitants, beat them
unmercifully and then carried them away to the hills.
the month of May, the brothers Paul and Demetrius Stavrou Kopassani were
cut to pieces near Kousna of Chili, in the presence of the chief of the
gendarmerie of that district. In the same month, George P. Kopassani and his
wife Polyxeni disappeared,
while going to their sheep herd near Kilisli (Chili).
the first days of June, Apr Yazidji and his wife Margharo were murdered
by an Albanian band on the highway of Scutari-Chili. Their bodies were later
found in a horrible, condition. Both
man and wife had their heads cut off. A medical examination proved,
that the woman had been violated previous to her slaughter. In
the same month, the corpses
of Pan. Papageorghiou, Pan. Zighoni, Nic. Yamenoglou and of the
latter's two sons, were found in Boyalk.
July, a large band of Lazes robbed the inhabitants of Arnaout-keuy (near
Beicoz) after badly beating them.Towards the end of the same month Miltos of
Pashakey and two other men were
killed with bombs near Doutouli, and a fourth one was wounded.
the months of August and September, Albanian and Laz bands terrorised the
regions of Pashakeuy (Ghevzeh), robbing and beating the Christians.
September 3rd, in the district of Chili, at a distance of 6 hours
from Yenikeuy, at the place called Moudali, the
16 year old son of Lambros from Yenikeuy was killed with an axe.
September 9th, a
Laz band, mortally wounded Manoli Stamati and cut off Ap. Teplesi's ears.
September 10th, Pan.
Hepanis and J. Patzajis were
found literally cut to pieces near Deyrimen Tchaisi. The same fate, at
the same time, was shared by Elias Triandafillou, his son Triandafyllos and
the sailor Papazoglou. Towards the middle of the same month the notable of
Pasha-keuy Dem. Parnjis, was found
murdered between AlemDagh and Sultan Tchiflik. After the murder and on
account of the frequent raids of the bands on the village, the inhabitants
abandoned their houses. The same did the people of Buyuk-Bakal-keuy.
September 20th, Jacob Zographides from Pontoheracleia,
as he was on his way to the market of Alapli.
October 15th, two field-guards of the community of Ryssion were
by Albanians, at a distance of half-a mile from Ghevzeh.
October 26th, certain Turks going to the mill Tchaoush-Degimeni (at
Kandra), cut to pieces
the miller A. Philippou, his wife, his daughter and his relative St.
Demetriou. The next day, three Greeks, while coming from Kandra, were murdered
near Kara-Begte. The millers Nic. Kakouzis and Sp. Mariou were
also killed and near Ava.
October 30th, Theodore Zarocosta, his wife and daughter, were
merciless beaten and lead away to the hills.
November 19th, Basil Stephanou, a grocer, long since established in
the very first days of 1920, conditions in this diocese became very
raided all the Christian communities, robbed, tortured and generally
terrorised the inhabitants.
February 1920, three gendarmes took
April 1st, Laz bandits raided Beicoz at night and carried away
Sheo. Ch. Kalphopoulos. On the same day George Tatazoglou was mortally
wounded at Renkeuy.
April 10th, the same Laz bandits wounded Anne Stylianou of
Pashakeuy and cut
Athanassius Romanos to pieces.
April 15th, Ch. Touratzoglou was
murdered in his mill in Agasich of Kandra, by Turkish brigands.
April 25th, the same band caught 10 Christians, beat them, tied
them up in the Mosque, intending to kill them. They were saved only through
the mediation of native Turks.
May 7th, robbers went after the shepherd George Theodossiou, while
he was returning with his family to Yeni-keuy and seriously wounded his
May, all Christians working in Ava, Kandra and the neighbouring villages,
unable to stand the torture and tyranny of the bands, abandoned everything and
came to Yenikeuy (Chili).
the end of the same month the bands at Pontoheracleia, fleeing before the
French troops, plundered, violated and massacred
all that lay on their way. Ch. Savoglou, George Myrides and Theo. Aslanides were
cut to pieces. The Greek village Karakavouz, 6 hours away from
Pontoheracli, was surrounded, plundered and its inhabitants, excepting very
same fate was shared by the village Alapli. Of its inhabitants Dem. Manolis
was wounded in the neck and the miller Bas. Deyirmenji had
his ears cut off after a savage beating.
the first half of June began the emigration of those who had escaped massacre,
during the advance of the Kemalists. In Pontoheracleia all the stores and
houses were plundered, and the Archimandrite of the community Joachim Kaloudis
was cast to , together with other notables. Later
on they were taken to the prisons of Bolou, where the
Archimandrite and 11 notables were hanged.
May 11th, bandits under the leadership of the boatman Birbad Emin,
carried Fotini Hadjistephanou, her daughter-in-law, Despina, her two daughters
and her two grand-children away to the mountains, where Despina was
killed. On the same day another band murdered
the notable of Pontoheraclion Hadjistephanou, his wife Despina, the daughter
and three guests from Saframboli,
inhabitants of Chili and Yeni-keuy fleeing before the Kemalist hordes,
were scattered. Yeni-keuy was
set on fire. Several of the survivors took refuge to the capital. About
180 of the people of
Yeni-keuy died a horible death, and several of the inhabitants of
Pashakeuy were also murdered.
June 20th, a numerous Turkish-laz band raided Beicoz and plundered
the stores and houses of the village. British and Greek troops were brought in
and succeeded in capturing many of the brigands. A close search in Turkish
houses led to the discovery of firearms, bombs and machine guns.
June 25th, 750 Kemalists surrounded the four villages of
Foundouklia (12 miles off Ada Bazar), pillaged them, killed
nearly 400 men, violated and then murdered 30 women, gouged out the eyes and
cut off the ears of the Priest Constantine, an old man of 95, and then
bayoneted and shot the Priest Stavros dead. The survivors ran away to
June again, Arnaout-keuy, a short distance from Beicoz, was besieged for
several days and then plundered by brigands and Kemalist troops. The advance
of the Greek army saved the people from certain death, but they were once
again obliged to emigrate to Beicoz and Pasha Bagtche.
information which has just reached here, it is concluded that conditions in
the interior of
Procopios of Iconion, a victim of slander, was brought from
of the inhabitants of Iconion, Nigdi, Kutahia, and Eski Sheir are being
tyrannized and several have already been
hanged. The Bishop's Exarch of Kutahia has been exiled to Haimana with
several other Priests.
the diocese of Pisidia, all the Greek schools are closed and the people are
Sokia, the officials confiscated the houses and shops of many Christians. In
November 1920, two Greeks, going from Kelebek to Sokia, were
killed by Turks. In December the authorities at Sokia arrested Petrides
from Akka-keuy and took him away. Only Christians are forbidden to travel from
the interior to
the signing of the Armistice, it was rightly expected that the Turkish
authorities, as well as all Turkish citizens, in conformity with the new
political situation, would wish to play their part in soothing the deep wounds
inflicted on the body of the country by the reckless and very mean behaviour
of the new Government of the Young Turks and in bringing about the financial
revival of Turkey.
the attitude of the governing Turkish circles and of the Turkish people was
different. They hoped to cause trouble and turmoil, by using terror and then
profit, by applying plans designed beforehand. Military convocations were held
in secret. Policemen unreservedly spread news of imminent extermination of the
Christian population. Encouraged Turkish thugs assailed passers-by at night,
wounding and killing a good many. Suburbs were submitted to particularly
oppressive terror. Criminal elements publicly insulted religion, Church and
everything else and threatened the Christians with a general massacre.
luckily their some of their plans were frustrated. The victorious armies of
the Allied Powers, occupying different sections of the entire administrative
mechanism of the capital, have, day by day, in a short time after the
Armistice, brought about some tranquillity in the city.
and terror were the chief means used in this diocese by Turks, whether public
functionaries of not. They were aided by a group of Turkish Lazes, which grew
stronger and stronger every day with the enlistment of new recruits.
Lazes, inhabitants of Phanaraki, found their interests impaired after the
Armistice and entered into an understanding with those living in Anatolian
Phanaraki adherents of Kemal, to attack together the community. Happily their
evil designs collapsed.
the beginning of April, 1919, Constantine Demetriou, an inhabitant of
killed by Emin oglou Hassan and Sabri policemen of Ayasmataki, as he
was coming back from the
the beginning of October, 1919, a gang of 30 Albanian-Turks savagely
massacred Nicolas, a shepherd, native of St. Georg's village, while he
was working in the Dere-keuy farm near the Sparta-Koule railroad station. On
about the middle of the same month, Turkish peasants and policemen entered the
village Calis, shooting and stealing. Their bullets killed
a woman named Evghenia Anastasiou.
January 1920, a father and his son, living at Boghaz-Keui, were killed
at Alou Tepe of the
May 30th, 1920, a Turkish military detachment, consisting of a
captain, a lieutenant and 50 soldiers, entered Castanea and mercilessly beat
many of the inhabitants, wounding one of them with the bayonet. The pretext
was that they wanted to make an inquiry about some wood that had been stolen
July, 1920, ten Turks went to the watermill near Ermeni-keuy and led
away 5 Greeks working in the mill. Two of them were killed, Anastasios
Ghristou from Ermeni-keuy and Demetrios Christodoulou from Phanari. In the
same month, Vassilios Demetriou, a native of the village Ak-Alan, was
killed by a Turkish robbers' band. Forty days before this insident,
another inhabitant of the same village, named Dimou, was
the end of May, 1919, Vasilios G.Tsertsis was
killed at Yaziler on the Tchataldja fortifications and the shepherd
Demos Leonidou was
killed near his native village Ak-Alan.
June 2nd, a group of 20 Lazes surrounded the village Tzelep-keuy
and robbed many peasants. This village suffered a severer attack in October of
the same year. A girl
died then of fear. At about the middle of the same month, Natsos, a
coal-merchant from Ak-Alan, was caught together with his wife and were
released, only after giving 300 gold liras and his wife's jewels as a ransom
to the robbers.
July of the same year, armed Turks, fleeing before the Greek troops that
the Armistice till recently, anarchy and terror reigned over the entire
independent district of Metrae. The activity of the Turkish bands was daily
intensified and there was no security.
coasts of the Euxine from Ascos down to Neohoriou,
were the landing places of Lezes coming from the Eastern shores. These bands,
organized by the Metral constabulary, were sent to different places in the
vicinity, to practice their criminal designs. Parallel to this, the Turkish
inhabitant's temperament began to grow wild. Their provocations and menaces
increased every day. When ordered by local authorities to drive away every
single Christian out of every village, the Turks and in particular the
peasants, executed these orders by conducting mainly night-assaults.
of violence by the Turks in general against Christians became the order of the
day and attempts of murders and slaughters were often.
March, 1919, an inhabitant of the village St. George was
slain by Turks in the woods, where be had gone to gather wood.
April, 1919, Constantine Mimicou from Arna-out-keuy,
was cut to pieces by
Turks as he was coming back from
the end of the same month, a
Greek Youth, 17 years of age, was found strangled on the Bouyouk
Tchekmedje shore. In spite serious suspicions falling on the son of Said Agha,
a Turkish notable, the authorities took no action on the matter.
and security were greatly impaired. Turkish notables of Silivria and of
Tyroloi, who had had taken a leading part in the persecutions of Christians,
organized armed bands, which cooperating with the constabulary, the regular
army and detachments of Lazes, terrorized this diocese.
the 19th, four constables entered the village Kadikeuy at night and
breaking into the house of Alexander Georghiou, sought to conduct him away.
They were ready to fire at him, when the villagers, awakened by the toll of
the church-bell rushed out of their homes and then the constables left.
about the end of September, 1919, three men, inhabitants of Phanarion, disappeared.
The community addressed itself to the Ministry of War and to the Chief
Inspector of the Turkish Constabulary, General Foulon and pleaded for the
immediate and severe punishment of the criminals, for material support to the
families of the victims and for guarantees of the safety of their lives in the
must be particularly noted, that from the conclusion of the Armistice to the
present day, the Turks of Rodosto maintained a provocative and menacing
attitude toward the Christian population of the city.
There even came a time, when the Christians shut their shops up early and
confined themselves at home, fearing assaults from the Turks.
the end of May, 1919, three Albanian-Turks, guarding the Tsikili Farm, on the
Tsads-Tyroloe road, killed
two young Christian men from Tsads, whose clothes and ears they sent to this
town, to frighten the peasantry and whose corpses they gave to the dogs of the
farm for food.
the first days of September, 1919, three shepherds from the same town, named
Stavros Lazou, Autholohos Apostolou and Anastasios Kehaghias, returning from
Tsado to their sheep pen near Skerekl, were arrested by 16 constables, who
took them to the forest. The first managed to escape, but the other 2
men disappeared. On the 11th of the month, they were found killed,
the belly of the one had been torn open with a bayonet and the body of the
other was mangled.
the region of Malghara there was never a state of order and of security. Since
the first days after the Armistice, the Turks of this district were seen
preparing several fanatics of their own group and forming bands, which would
soon fall on the Christians. One Albanian, called Moustapha, recruited twenty
about the middle of April, 1919, four Turkish constables entered the
OF GANOS AND CHORA
the Greek communities of this district, with out any exception, were much
tormented by the local Turks, particularly by three fanatical officials of the
Government, i.e. the tax-collectors Ibrahim and Behdjet and the Customs
official at Chora Youssouf. Beating, imprisonment and violence of all sorts,
were every-day occurrences. Communications between the villages were often
suspended for days and weeks on end, owing to the appearance of marauding
bands, which robbed every one who dared pass through their quarters. It
should be particularly remembered that almost all of these bands
consisted of soldiers and gendarmes.
Turkish peasants' fanaticism, provocations and threatening attitude toward the
Greeks had grown so violent, that they openly declared, even in presence of
Government officials, that they would quite soon annihilate them. This state
of things paralyzed the will of the Greeks and prevented them from attending
to their business.
about the end of April 1919, Anagnostis Georgiou disappeared on his way back
from Malgara to his home in the
the 25th of September, Anestis Djelepis and Yovanis Papa-Joannou of
Avdimi were cruelly beaten by Turks from Neokhori.
about the middle of December, 1919, Periclis Prodromou from Avdini,
was slaughtered like a
lamb, near Atelthini.
the 11th of February, the shepherd Antonios Georgiou Tsitsona, from the
diocese was at first victimised in various ways by the fifth Turkish Division,
whose soldiers ruined buildings, destroyed vineyards, felled trees, pulled
down part of the
the Division left, the oppression continued from officials, gendarmes and
private Turkish individuals. Practically no day went by without some robbery
or beating or shooting taking place. The folder of this diocese in the
Patriarchate is full of reports to that effect. To these ill treatments should
be added the forcible gathering of taxes for the up-keep of the Turkish
schools and the exile of all the returning Greeks, who have been deported.
account of the prevailing oppressions, especially in the countryside, the
farmers could no longer go without danger to their fields or move from village
to village. In the meanwhile, the government went on systematically arming the
Musulmans and furthering Djafer Tayar's insurrection. On
is well known that this diocese had for several reasons been almost entirely
evacuated. The inhabitants who gradually returned to their houses began their
usual work. The murders, however, which were committed by Turkish bands and
the oppression of the officials, seriously impeded their occupations.
September 24th, Demosthenes Dem. Koutzaris from Anghellohori,
was found dead.
He had been murdered
by the notorious brigand Tahir, who being well connected to the local
authorities, dared informing them himself of Demosthene's murder and afterward
he did not even permit the wife of the victim to see the dead body of her
husband. Tahir was the terror especially of the Greek farmers and was often
employed by the local authorities in scaring the Christians. Forming a
volunteers' corps, he went about plundering, beating and murdering. In Taifur
he robbed Evanghelos Photius of 100 paper and 30 gold liras. The Moudir of
Yalova forced through Tachir the Turkish villagers to drive away all the
Christians living in their villages. Tahir formally declared that he would
massacre those Christians, should they not leave the Turkish villages in three
December 6th, Dem. Karafotakis and Char. Foundas went from
homonymous district of the diocese, which had so much suffered during the war,
fared no better after the conclusion of the Armistice. The life of the
Christians was continually at stake. Robberies, committed by Turkish soldiers
and emigrants aided by Bulgarian regulars, who crossed over the Maritza
frontier, line took place regularly.
Kirkalis, Photius Stamatiou and George Nicolaou disappeared in the month of
May 1919 while on their way to Hypsala, to present themselves before the
Christian villages in Easter
June 6th, Constantine Christou was
murdered by the tax-collector Hafiz and his soldiers. Angelo Demetriou
was beaten, for resisting a gendarme who tried to violate her.
June 7th, St. Karyophylis and Con. Katzikarakis were
murdered on their way from Ouzoun-Kioprou to Psathades.
June 12th, fifteen armed Turks, of whom two gendarmes and the Hodja
of the village Rahmadi, went to the village Yaouts
and attacked St. Photiou's house. They beat the master of the house, wounded
his daughter Marica and his grand-son George and robbed them of all the money
they possessed. This village was on
May 18th, sixty soldiers, led by an officer, asked the inhabitants
of the above village to supply them with provisions. The villagers did as they
were told. The officer then asked for a saddle. On the villager’s reply that
there was no saddle in the village fit for an officer's horse, he and his
soldiers commenced shooting. A panic followed. The villagers ran away to the
fields. Kassellis Moshou, Ap. Gheorghiou and Kerasia Athanassiou were
killed, several others were wounded. The soldiers, after plundering the
village, went away. Toward the end of the month Ch. Yanacoulis was
killed by Turks in Kavakli. On the same day one Greek
was killed in Zaloufi and another in Kavakli.
state of affairs in this diocese proves that Turkish officials and private
individuals did not intend even after the Armistice to change their attitude
toward the Christians. The latter were in constant terror for their lives,
honour and property.
July 2nd, a
Turkish band cut to pieces Yannako Deligheorghi from Karaja-keuy, as he
was making coal in the wood. The murdered man was among the refugees who had
returned from Salonica. Here it must be said that the authorities of
Tchataldja on no account allowed those returning from
the middle of August, 1919, Petros, Stamatios and Stratos from Shanja, were
slaughtered between Koush-keuy and Gumush Bunar; John Saplamoglou of
Karaja-keuy was carried away by Turks and later ransomed for 2000 liras.
diocese was terrorised by a secret organization, for the purpose of
annihilating the Greek elements, especially those in the open country. There
was no security of life and property for the Greeks within and outside
Kirk-Kilisse. The nationalist animosity of the Turkish elements for the
Greeks, often manifested itself in a ferocious manner, while systematic
robbing and compulsory contributions were the least, that the Greeks had to
pretty large sum of money was forcibly taken from Karakatchans, living in the
neighbourhood of Kirk-Kilisse and from 12 inhabitants of
April 1919, Constine Ap. Voutzas was badly beaten in the very town of
band of 15 members under Captain Zakeria terrorised the districts of Skopo,
November 20th, at
a band of 15 entered the flour-mill of Ch. Skoulidis, arrested the workers,
beat them, locked them up in one of the rooms and then proceeded to the
plunder of the mill. They carried the spoils to the Turkish
robberies and violations were intensified in the districts of Xenna, Skopo,
May 1919, George Karaghiozoglou and Dem. Loulebourghazli were first
robbed and then murdered.
August 20th, Dem. Michael from Samakov and George Adamandiou from
Skepasto, left Kirk-Klisse in the morning and spent the night in the Turkish
December 3rd Yannakis Papadopoulos from Euasion, was shot dead
while on his way to Kirk-Kilise.
December 13th, Turks
killed the notable and Mouhtar of the
the morning of January 11th, Ath.
K. Katchavounis was
found dead in the room next to
his grocery, bearing marks of 40 axe wounds.
May 15th Anast.
Mavringos and Angh. Sterghiou from Skopos,
were attacked by Turks. The former took to his heels and was thus saved. The
latter, wounded in the stomach, fell on the ground and was at once finished
with a knife.
special attention of the Turks was drawn by the Greek element of the city and
March 31st, Hussein Hazioglou plundered Verghi Photiou's
grocery in Ghirdeli.
April 16th, the committee which had been formed under Prince
Djemaleddin for the purpose of advising and conciliating the dissenting elements,
state of affairs grew worse every day. The Turks of the city became more
menacing and those of the country rendered the position of the Christians
exceedingly precarious. A Turkish band appearing in the neighbourhood of the
village Gherdely in the first days of April 1913, robbed and ill treated all
the Greeks that passed by. In addition to that, the Police drove away the
Greeks, who returned from
Prefect answering in a “tez-kere”, dated December 5th, gave
certain resoning, seeking always to justify the attitude of the authorities
and proceeded to say: “We remind your Eminence, that the last paragraph in Your
“takrir” is not fitting to your quality of an Ottoman. It is contrary to
the prerogatives of the Patriarchate and to the courtesy of correspondence.
The Prefecture therefore being, unable to accept your “takrir”, returns it
to Your Eminence, and
recommends that you should not to step over the limits set by
the Privileges.” The Metropolitan hastened to refute the above. The act
nevertheless was a proof of the Prefect's intentions. He continued to have the
same tyrannical mentality, even
after the Armistice, which promised liberty to the Nations under the Turkish
yoke. In addition to all this, the systematic arming of the Turks
commenced, first in the villages and later in the city. Furthermore,
there was military
activity of these who had adopted Moustafa Kemal's program. All such
preparations, taking place under the leadership of Djafer Tayar, Military